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REPORTERRE 15/02/21 Le Mexique interdit le maïs OGM : historique, mais pas facile à appliquer. Le gouvernement mexicain a tranché.

REPORTERRE 15/02/21 Le Mexique interdit le maïs OGM : historique, mais pas facile à appliquer

D’ici trois ans, le maïs transgénique sera interdit dans tout le pays. « Cette décision est historique, car depuis vingt-et-un ans les réseaux paysans, les chercheurs et les organisations civiles, dont Greenpeace, ont mené des batailles juridiques contre les OGM au Mexique », a déclaré Greenpeace Mexique début janvier. Dès 1998, un premier moratoire avait été mis en place, à la suite d’une large mobilisation citoyenne qui réclamait le principe de précaution face au risque de contamination des variétés traditionnelles de maïs par les variétés transgéniques.

Puis machine arrière en 2009, alors que le gouvernement de droite approuvait des cultures expérimentales dans le nord du pays, à la suite des demandes des géants de l’agrochimie, Monsanto et Syngenta notamment. Un gouvernement où se côtoient promoteurs et opposants des OGM Maïs dans un jardin urbain à Ecatepec de Morelos, au Mexique. De la nourriture animale à l’alimentation humaine. PIGSITE 19/01/21 Mexico’s ag industry warns that bans on GMO corn and glyphosate could shrink food supplies. Reuters reports that concerns over the move are also coming from Mexico’s massive livestock sector.

PIGSITE 19/01/21 Mexico’s ag industry warns that bans on GMO corn and glyphosate could shrink food supplies

A 31 December degree banning the use of genetically modified corn over three years has sparked a frenzy of lobbying urging officials to reconsider. The agriculture and economy ministries held a high-level meeting with industry representatives this week, according to several participants. The same decree also calls for a ban on the herbicide glyphosate, used in Mexico by thousands of small and big farms to boost crop yields. While Mexico, the birthplace of modern corn, has never allowed commercial-scale planting of the grain using seeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO), it imports millions of tonnes of such corn for its growing livestock sector, among many other industrial uses. The decree does not detail how the country might replace the supplies. The statement, however, did not detail the measures. FAS USDA 12/01/21 Mexico: Agricultural Biotechnology Annual. FAS USDA 22/12/20 Mexico: Agricultural Biotechnology Annual. FAS USDA 18/03/20 Mexico: Agricultural Biotechnology Annual.

FAS USDA 30/11/18 New Mexican Regulation for GE Risk Assessments_Mexico_Mexico_11-27-2018. FAS USDA 07/11/18 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_Mexico City_Mexico_10-30-2018. FAS USDA 28/12/17 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_Mexico City_Mexico_12-22-2017. FAS USDA 02/11/17 Administrative failure triggers custody of GE cotton fields_Mexico_Mexico_10-30-2017. MEXICAN LAW EVIEW - 2016 - MEXICO´S ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN THE GMO ERA.

Mexico´s environmental legislation is rooted in the Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1917.1 Article 4 provides for the right of all persons to an adequate environment for their development.2 Although general, this suggests a concern for the environment and for human health.

MEXICAN LAW EVIEW - 2016 - MEXICO´S ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN THE GMO ERA

In addition, article 27 of the Constitution regulates the ownership of lands and waters in Mexico while detailing the obligation of the Mexican government "to preserve or restore the ecological balance" of the land".3 Article 73 empowers Congress to delimit the powers of the States and municipalities regarding environmental protection.4 At the federal level, several laws aim to preserve biological resources and regulate Living Modified Organisms (LMOs).

One such law is the General Law of Ecological Equilibrium,5 which establishes the basis for environmental protection in Mexico. The rest of the comment is organized into three sections. 1. 2. II. III. IV. A. B. C. 3. A. B. C. D. 4. 5. A. B. C. Figure 1. LOC_GOV 09/06/15 Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: Mexico. Back to Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms Mexico’s Law on Biosecurity of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO Law) is the main federal statute pertaining to these organisms.

LOC_GOV 09/06/15 Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: Mexico

It provides rules on research concerning, and the release, commercialization, exportation, and importation of, GMOs, and is aimed at preventing, avoiding, or reducing the risks that these activities may cause to human health, the environment, biological diversity, or the health of plants and animals. It also provides that the policy pertaining to biosecurity of GMOs is to ensure that these organisms are released, commercialized, exported, and imported with an adequate level of safety. Approval of GMOs for human consumption requires a study of the possible risks that consumption of the GMO may present for human health. Prior to their release, GMOs must be subject to risk studies and successful approval of experimental releases. I. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 07/02/14 Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. EJOLT 13/03/13 Apiculture vs. Transgenic-soybean in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

Global Environmental Change 22 (2012) 495–504 Climate change and the transgenic adaptation strategy: Smallholder livelihoods, climate justice, and maize landraces in Mexico. CIBIOGEM 25/11/13 Présentation : Biosafety Regulations in México and the National Network for the Detection, Identification, and Quantitation of Genetically Modified Organisms (RNLD‐OGM) FAS USDA 29/12/16 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_Mexico City_Mexico_12-21-2016. FAS USDA 15/08/15 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_Mexico City_Mexico_7-15-2015. FAS USDA 07/08/14 Mexico Agricultural Biotechnology Annual 2014.

ENSSER - NOV 2012 - GM maize in México: An irreversible path away from agricultural biodiversity, farmer livelihoods and the right to food within the center of origin of maize. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 07/02/14 Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. PLOS 13/03/14 A Regulatory Structure for Working with Genetically Modified Mosquitoes: Lessons from Mexico. Citation: Ramsey JM, Bond JG, Macotela ME, Facchinelli L, Valerio L, Brown DM, et al. (2014) A Regulatory Structure for Working with Genetically Modified Mosquitoes: Lessons from Mexico.

PLOS 13/03/14 A Regulatory Structure for Working with Genetically Modified Mosquitoes: Lessons from Mexico

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(3): e2623. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002623 Editor: Jesus G. Valenzuela, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, United States of America Published: March 13, 2014 Copyright: © 2014 Ramsey et al. Funding: Research and Policy for Infectious Disease Dynamics program of the Science and Technology Directory, Department of Homeland Security; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health; Pasteur Institute – Cenci Bolognetti Foundation; Foundation for the National Institutes of Health through the Grand Challenges in Global Health (GCGH) initiative.

Competing interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Introduction Regulatory Domains for the Discovery and Development of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Figure 1. Doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002623.g001. EJOLT 13/03/13 Apiculture vs. Transgenic-soybean in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. JORNADA 29/05/14 Obligatorio, etiquetar las semillas genéticamente modificadas: Sagarpa. Matilde Pérez U.

JORNADA 29/05/14 Obligatorio, etiquetar las semillas genéticamente modificadas: Sagarpa

Periódico La JornadaJueves 29 de mayo de 2014, p. 18 La Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (Sagarpa) asentó que será obligatorio etiquetar todas las semillas o material vegetal de organismos genéticamente modificados (OGM) destinados a la siembra, cultivo y producción agrícola, las cuales quedarán sujetas a las normas oficiales que expida en conjunto con la Secretaría de Economía. En el proyecto de norma oficial mexicana para el etiquetado que publicó ayer en el Diario Oficial de la Federación, Sagarpa expuso que dicho etiquetado incluye la identificación de los OGM mediante códigos alfa numéricos exclusivos y registros con información de ellos.

El etiquetado, abundó, debe contener información veraz y objetiva, describir el contenido y no inducir a error a los usuarios con respecto a su naturaleza y características. THE GUARDIAN 08/08/14 Sweet victory for Mexico beekeepers as Monsanto loses GM permit. A small group of beekeepers in Mexico has inflicted a blow on biotech giant Monsanto, which has halted the company’s ambitions to plant thousands of hectares of soybeans genetically modified to resist the company’s pesticide Roundup.

THE GUARDIAN 08/08/14 Sweet victory for Mexico beekeepers as Monsanto loses GM permit

A district judge in the state of Yucatán last month overturned a permit issued to Monsanto by Mexico’s agriculture ministry, Sagarpa, and environmental protection agency, Semarnat, in June 2012 that allowed commercial planting of Roundup-ready soybeans. The permit authorised Monsanto to plant its seeds in seven states, over more than 253,000 hectares (625,000 acres), despite protests from thousands of Mayan farmers and beekeepers, Greenpeace, the Mexican National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity, the National Commission of Natural Protected Areas and the National Institute of Ecology.

Mexico is the world’s six biggest producer and third largest exporter of honey. About 25,000 families on the Yucatán peninsula depend on honey production. MEXICO BUSINESS BLOG 15/10/13 Judge halts GMO corn planting in Mexico. A federal judge in Mexico issued a ruling early this month suspending any planting of genetically modified (GMO) corn in the country.

MEXICO BUSINESS BLOG 15/10/13 Judge halts GMO corn planting in Mexico

The ruling also bars the Ministries of Agriculture (Sagarpa) and the Environment (Semarnat) from approving any pending permits to plant GMO corn for “experimental, pilot or commercial” purposes until further scientific evidence is presented on the potential risks of GMO corn to the country’s native maize species. According to media reports, 14 requests for permits to plant GMO corn are pending before government agencies from seed companies including Monsanto, Pioneer and Dow AgroScience, among others. The legal ruling came in response to a suit filed by local non-governmental organizations seeking a permanent ban on GMO corn in the country. The ruling leaves open the door for the current ban to be lifted at an undetermined point in the future following presentation of arguments in favor and against.

LOC_GOV 30/04/14 Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: Mexico. Back to Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms Mexico’s Law on Biosecurity of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO Law) is the main federal statute pertaining to these organisms.

LOC_GOV 30/04/14 Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: Mexico

It provides rules on research concerning, and the release, commercialization, exportation, and importation of, GMOs, and is aimed at preventing, avoiding, or reducing the risks that these activities may cause to human health, the environment, biological diversity, or the health of plants and animals. It also provides that the policy pertaining to biosecurity of GMOs is to ensure that these organisms are released, commercialized, exported, and imported with an adequate level of safety. Approval of GMOs for human consumption requires a study of the possible risks that consumption of the GMO may present for human health. Prior to their release, GMOs must be subject to risk studies and successful approval of experimental releases. I. FAS USDA 04/09/13 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_Mexico City_Mexico_8-5-2013. FAS USDA 24/06/14 Mexico Proposes New Label Requirements for GE Seeds and Vegetative Propagation Materials. FAS USDA 28/07/14 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual - Next Steps to Advance Biotechnology in Mexico Uncertain.

Mexico Agricultural Biotechnology Annual 2014. FAS USDA 20/08/12 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_Mexico City_Mexico_7-19-2012 . Transgenic Cotton Harbours Hidden Dangers. Mexico -- Transgenic Cotton Harbours Hidden Dangers SOURCE URL: By Emilio Godoy MEXICO CITY, Oct 20, 2011 (IPS) - Wild cotton in Mexico has been contaminated with genetically modified material, posing a risk to biodiversity, experts say.

Transgenic Cotton Harbours Hidden Dangers

This worrying conclusion was reached by six scientists at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) in a research study published this month in Molecular Ecology, an international journal. In their article "Recent long-distance transgene flow into wild populations conforms to historical patterns of gene flow in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at its centre of origin", the experts showed that cotton genes and transgenes can be transferred between populations thousands of kilometres apart by seed dispersal. "The genetic diversity of wild populations is very high, and that of cultivated cotton is very low. The first plots of genetically modified soy were evaluated in 2008. PVPULSE 01/08/12 Monsanto’s Genetically Modified Crops Threaten Mexican Honey Exports. This is a case that perfectly exemplifies how everything in our world is interconnected; from the disappearance of bees and how that is related with genetically engineered (GE) crops, to a trans-national company, European Union legislation and Mexican exports, passing through indigenous rights and economic interests.

Last Friday, a Mexican judge ordered to temporarily cancel a permit issued by Sagarpa (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food) to the American company Monsanto, that would allow it to plant commercial GE soy in 253,000 hectares in the country, most of them in the Yucatan Peninsula. The problem is that the peninsula is home to 25,000 honey-producer families who make up for 40% of Mexican exports of honey; it’s been demonstrated that the presence of GE crops have a negative influence on the bee population. Protests against GE food in Mexico. FAS USDA 06/01/12 GM Corn Pilot Tests Approved. FAS USDA 25/03/12 Mexico Approves 4 Additional GE Corn Pilot Tests. FAS USDA 08/06/12 Genetically-Enhanced Soybeans Approved for Commercial Use. FAS USDA 09/07/12 Genetically Enhanced Corn Events Approved for Pilot Stage. GREENPEACE 27/06/12 OGM : le cas du Mexique.