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THE CONVERSATION 22/12/19 Great Lakes waters at risk from buried contaminants and new threats. Nickle Beach, Copper Harbor, Silver Bay.

THE CONVERSATION 22/12/19 Great Lakes waters at risk from buried contaminants and new threats

These places, all situated on the shores of the Laurentian Great Lakes, evoke the legacy of mining connected with the region. While mining operations for metal ores and their refining have all but ceased here, there are renewed concerns over the safety of our Great Lakes source waters. One only has to think back to the 2014 water crisis in Flint, Mich. that exposed more than 100,000 people to elevated lead levels or to more recent headlines over lead contamination in water distributed from Canadian taps. Read more: Lead-tainted water: How to keep homes, schools, daycares and workplaces safe The Great Lakes basin is home to more than 35 million people distributed across two nations and numerous First Nations. Yet, environmental concerns are a recurring theme, compromising beneficial uses of the lakes and connecting rivers and posing a threat to a combined GDP of US$5.8 trillion across the region. An A grade, for now.

Science of The Total Environment Volume 686, 10 October 2019, Prioritizing chemicals of ecological concern in Great Lakes tributaries using high-throughput screening data and adverse outcome pathways. A Jr et al., 2010 Krewski Jr, D., D.A Jr., Andersen, M., Anderson, H., J.C.B III, Boekelheide, K., Brent, R., Charnley, G., Cheung, V.G., S.G Jr, Kelsey, K.T., Kerkvliet, N.I., Li, A.A., McCray, L., Meyer, O., Patterson, R.D., Pennie, W., Scala, R.A., Solomon, G.M., Stephens, M., Yager, J., Zeise, L., Testing, S. of C. on T., Agents, A. of E., 2010.

Science of The Total Environment Volume 686, 10 October 2019, Prioritizing chemicals of ecological concern in Great Lakes tributaries using high-throughput screening data and adverse outcome pathways

Toxicity testing in the 21st century: a vision and a strategy. J. Toxicol. Environ. Journal of Great Lakes Research Volume 44, Issue 4, August 2018, Atmospheric flows of semi-volatile organic pollutants to the Great Lakes estimated by the United States' Integrated Atmospheric Deposition and Canada's Great Lakes Basin Monitoring and Surve. Journal of Great Lakes Research Volume 44, Issue 4, August 2018, Legacy polychlorinated organic pollutants in the sediment of the Great Lakes. KNOWRIDGE SCIENCE REPORT 18/10/17 Antidepressants found in fish brains in Great Lakes region. The drugs enter rivers and lakes from treatment plants and sewage overflows, threatening aquatic life, scientists say Human antidepressants are building up in the brains of bass, walleye and several other fish common to the Great Lakes region, scientists say.

KNOWRIDGE SCIENCE REPORT 18/10/17 Antidepressants found in fish brains in Great Lakes region

In a new study, researchers detected high concentrations of these drugs and their metabolized remnants in the brain tissue of 10 fish species found in the Niagara River. Journal of Great Lakes Research Volume 44, Issue 4, August 2018, Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides concentration patterns and trends in top predator fish of Laurentian Great Lakes from 1999 to 2014. Environmental Pollution Volume 236, May 2018 Contaminants of emerging concern presence and adverse effects in fish: A case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

JOURNAL METRO 28/11/17 La pollution des Grands Lacs voyage jusqu’au Québec. Un rapport publié mardi fait état de la situation écologique inquiétante dans les Grands-Lacs.

JOURNAL METRO 28/11/17 La pollution des Grands Lacs voyage jusqu’au Québec

Et les Québécois devraient s’en inquiéter, selon une chercheuse qui vient de démontrer qu’une bonne partie de la pollution du fleuve Saint-Laurent vient de plusieurs centaines de kilomètres en amont. CONNEXION GRANDS LACS 08/03/18 Invasion verte : La pollution provoquée par des quantités excessives de nutriments étouffe les Grands Lacs. Par Michael Mezzacapo, CMI 2017 a une fois de plus été une année marquante pour la prolifération d’algues dans le Lac Érié.

CONNEXION GRANDS LACS 08/03/18 Invasion verte : La pollution provoquée par des quantités excessives de nutriments étouffe les Grands Lacs

La troisième plus importante prolifération d’algues jamais enregistrée a en effet été observée l’an dernier. Les scientifiques croient que la principale cause de cette importante efflorescence algale est un ruissellement excessif en provenance des terres agricoles en raison de concentrations élevées de phosphore dans le bassin versant de la rivière Maumee après de fortes précipitations aux mois de mai et juin. ELEMENTA - 2018 - Sewage loading and microbial risk in urban waters of the Great Lakes.

RADIO CANADA 26/12/17 Protection des Grands Lacs : les États-Unis et le Canada montrés du doigt. Il s'agit de son premier rapport de contrôle depuis la dernière mise à jour de l'Accord relatif à la qualité de l'eau dans les Grands Lacs en 2012.

RADIO CANADA 26/12/17 Protection des Grands Lacs : les États-Unis et le Canada montrés du doigt

Le rapport préconise l'amélioration des installations de traitement de l'eau potable et des eaux usées, ainsi que le renforcement des règlements sur l'eau propre. Il s'agira en particulier de limiter le ruissellement du phosphore, en grande partie responsable de la croissance des algues nuisibles dans le lac Érié. Il stipule également qu'il faut davantage travailler pour identifier les nouveaux types de contamination, comme les produits chimiques ignifuges, et développer des stratégies pour les limiter. Au cours des 45 dernières années, depuis la signature du pacte initial, un certain nombre de lieux hautement contaminés ont été nettoyés et des mesures ont été prises pour mieux protéger les Grands Lacs. N'empêche, trop peu a été fait pour s'assurer que l'eau des lacs soit potable, qu'il soit aussi possible d'y pêcher et d'y nager.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 17/04/14 Pollution top concern for U.S. and Canadian citizens around Great Lakes. A new Great Lakes survey by U.S. and Canadian researchers represents one of the largest attempts in recent decades to assess public views on a wide range of issues in the Great Lakes basin.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 17/04/14 Pollution top concern for U.S. and Canadian citizens around Great Lakes

The survey of more than 1,000 Americans and Canadians in the region revealed: • The vast majority of residents believe the lakes are in at least fair condition, but not necessarily improving. • Residents expressed the most overall support for policies that directly reduce pollution, including rebuilding sewers and regulating the release of pharmaceuticals. Policies with the least support include enforcing restrictions on out-of-basin water diversions and increasing the cost of water to encourage conservation. • Residents of Ontario are less supportive of additional wind development and more concerned about the potential negative impacts of wind energy than U.S. residents. The survey also suggests that Ontarians are also somewhat conflicted. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT POLICY INITIATIVE - AVRIL 2014 - Environmental Policy in the Great Lakes Region: Current Issues and Public Opinion.

Abstract The Great Lakes are an iconic natural feature of the boundary between Canada and the United States.

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT POLICY INITIATIVE - AVRIL 2014 - Environmental Policy in the Great Lakes Region: Current Issues and Public Opinion

In addition to their striking size and ecological importance, they also have great economic and cultural importance for the Great Lakes Region. Historically, the Lakes provided a means for regional trade, giving rise to outposts that now constitute the Region’s largest cities, Chicago and Toronto. Front. Environ. Sci., 19 July 2017 Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource.

Introduction In recent years, anthropogenic litter in the form of plastic debris has been documented in widespread and diverse marine (Law et al., 2010, 2014; Cózar et al., 2014; Fischer et al., 2015; van Sebille et al., 2015; Law, 2016), freshwater (Eriksen et al., 2013; Free et al., 2014; Mani et al., 2015; Baldwin et al., 2016; Mason et al., 2016), and even aeolian (Dris et al., 2015) biomes.

Front. Environ. Sci., 19 July 2017 Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource

It is estimated that 4.8–12.7 million tons of plastic enters the ocean in a single year (Jambeck et al., 2015), with a quarter of a million tons currently floating in the world's oceans (Eriksen et al., 2014). It is estimated that 70–80% of marine litter (most of which is plastic) originates from inland sources via rivers (GESAMP, 2010). The North American Great Lakes system contains one-fifth of the world's freshwater and is arguably one of the continent's most valuable natural resources.

The study of plastic in the environment is a rapidly growing field of research. Materials and Methods. Environmental Toxicology 26/09/16 Organic contamination in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at United States and binational great Lakes Areas of Concern. Contaminant exposure of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, nesting in 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Great Lakes basin was assessed from 2010 to 2014 to assist managers and regulators in their assessments of Great Lakes AOCs.

Environmental Toxicology 26/09/16 Organic contamination in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at United States and binational great Lakes Areas of Concern

Contaminant concentrations in nestlings from AOCs were compared with those in nestlings from nearby non-AOC sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in tree swallow nestling carcasses at 30% and 33% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in nestling stomach contents and perfluorinated compound concentrations in nestling plasma at 67% and 64% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs.

Concentrations of PCBs in nestling carcasses were elevated at some AOCs but modest compared with highly PCB-contaminated sites where reproductive effects have been documented. AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY 29/09/16 Widespread Plastic Pollution Found in Great Lakes Tributaries. Release Date: September 14, 2016 Tiny pieces of harmful plastic, called microplastics, are prevalent in many rivers that flow into the Great Lakes, according to a study published today in the journal Environmental Science & Technology. Results are also illustrated on a new USGS microplastics website. Microplastics fall off decomposing bottles and bags, wear off of synthetic clothing and are manufactured into some toothpastes and lotions. Scientists with the U.S.

Science of The Total Environment Available online 18 November 2016 An integrated approach for identifying priority contaminant in the Great Lakes Basin – Investigations in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary areas of concern. A U.S. Journal of Great Lakes Research Volume 41, Issue 4, December 2015, Is mirex still a contaminant of concern for the North American Great Lakes? Science of The Total Environment Volumes 554–555, 1 June 2016 Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity.

UNIVERSITÉ DE SHERBROOKE - MAI 2015 - Essai en ligne : MICROPLASTIQUES DANS LES GRANDS LACS : PISTES DE RÉFLEXION POUR DES SOLUTIONS ADAPTÉES À LA RÉALITÉ CANADIENNE. University of Windsor - AOUT 2011 - CHEMICALS OF EMERGING CONCERN IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION. EPA 28/09/16 Contaminated Sediment in the Great Lakes. On this page: Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although significant progress over the past 20 years has substantially reduced the discharge of toxic and persistent chemicals to the Great Lakes, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised considerable concern about potential risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans. As a result, advisories against fish consumption are in place in most locations around the Great Lakes.

Assessment. LAPRESSE 21/06/15 Au moins 500 toxines menacent les Grands Lacs. Des dizaines de groupes écologistes se préoccupent de la santé des cours d'eau et ils feront part de leurs inquiétudes dans une lettre qui sera envoyée lundi au comité exécutif des Grands Lacs - organisation responsable de surveiller la mise en place de l'accord. Les militants affirment que peu de progrès ont été accomplis par le sous-comité chargé d'enrayer le problème de la pollution.

L'Association canadienne du droit de l'environnement en était venue à la même conclusion dans une nouvelle étude. UNIVERSITY OF ONTARIO - 2014 - Présentation: Risk-benefit of consuming Lake Erie fish. ECOWATCH 16/07/14 A Nuclear Waste Dump on the Shore of the Great Lakes? Is dilution really the solution to pollution—especially when it’s nuclear waste that can stay radioactive for 100,000 years?

A four-member expert group told a federal joint review panel it is. The panel is examining an Ontario Power Generation proposal to bury low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste from the Darlington, Pickering and Bruce nuclear plants in limestone at the Bruce site in Kincardine, beside Lake Huron. According to the Toronto Star, the experts reported that 1,000 cubic meters of contaminated water could leak from the site, although it’s “highly improbable.” But even if it did leak, they argued, the amount is small compared to Lake Huron’s water volume and the quantity of rain that falls into it.

Others aren’t convinced. Michigan’s Senate recently adopted resolutions to urge President Barack Obama, Secretary of State John Kerry and U.S. EHP 23/09/11 Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish. ASSEMBLY OF FIRST NATIONS - Impacts of pollution on Great Lakes fisheries - Discussion paper. AP 10/01/15 Scientists concerned about plastic pollution in Great Lakes. John Flesher, The Associated Press Published Saturday, January 10, 2015 8:14AM EST TRAVERSE CITY, Mich. -- Scientists who have reported that the Great Lakes are awash in tiny bits of plastic are raising new alarms about a little-noticed form of the debris turning up in sampling nets: synthetic fibers from garments, cleaning cloths and other consumer products.

They are known as "microfibers" -- exceedingly fine filaments made of petroleum-based materials such as polyester and nylon that are woven together into fabrics. "When we launder our clothes, some of the little microfibers will break off and go down the drain to the wastewater treatment facility and end up in our bodies of water," Sherri "Sam" Mason, a chemist with the State University of New York at Fredonia, said Friday. The fibers are so minuscule that people typically don't realize their favourite pullover fleece can shed thousands of them with every washing, as the journal Environmental Science & Technology reported in 2011. University of Windsor - AOUT 2011 - CHEMICALS OF EMERGING CONCERN IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION. ENVIRONNEMENT CANADA - 2013 - État des Grands Lacs, 2011 Faits saillants. L'état général de la qualité de l'eau dans les Grands Lacs est passable.

À l'heure actuelle, on observe de faibles concentrations de produits chimiques toxiques dans les eaux du large, et une diminution de la concentration de certains produits chimiques existants dans les poissons, comme les biphényles polychlorés et le dichlorodiphényltrichloréthane. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH - 2014 - Risk-benefit of consuming Lake Erie fish. Environmental Pollution Volume 197, February 2015, Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969–2009.

EPA - 2014 - Identifying Emerging Contaminants for Monitoring in State Fish Programs. NATURE ALERTE 21/11/14 Canada: La pollution industrielle transforme l'eau des lacs canadiens en véritable soupe gelatineuse. GREAT LAKES ECHO 09/03/15 Aquaculture: Weighing economic potential, environmental risk. Recreational anglers fish near fish cages in Ontario. Image: Sea Grant. By Logan Clark Editors note: Michigan Sea Grant is hosting a Seafood Summit Thursday at Michigan State University to discuss expansion of the aquaculture industry. Great Lakes aquaculture could become a $1 billion industry in Canada and the U.S., according to a 2014 paper. One key for reaching that potential is for the Great Lakes states to follow Canada and legalize offshore aquaculture, reports the paper that was sponsored by Michigan Sea Grant, NOAA, Michigan State University and the state of Michigan.

Offshore aquaculture involves farm-raising up to several million fish in cages along the coasts of natural bodies of water instead of the inland practice of using large landlocked tanks. It is legally done in the ocean on both coasts of the United States. In Canada, the practice has sustained dozens of farms in northern Lake Huron for 15 years. Algae growth around fish cages. Such problems depend on location. Journal of Great Lakes Research Volume 41, Issue 1, March 2015, Risk-based screening of selected contaminants in the Great Lakes Basin.