SCIENCE 07/01/21 The uncertain future of North America’s ash trees, and organizing robot swarms. Freelance journalist Gabriel Popkin and host Sarah Crespi discuss what will happen to ash trees in the United States as federal regulators announce dropping quarantine measures meant to control the emerald ash borer—a devastating pest that has killed tens of millions of trees since 2002.
Instead of quarantines, the government will use tiny wasps known to kill the invasive beetles in hopes of saving the ash. Sarah also talks with Pavel Chvykov, a postdoctoral researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, about the principles for organizing active matter—things like ant bridges, bird flocks, or little swarms of robots. This week’s episode was produced with help from Podigy. Listen to previous podcasts. About the Science Podcast. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 28/10/20 Climate Change Hits Rock and Roll as Prized Guitar Wood Shortage Looms. Every winter and spring, rains across the central U.S. combine with snowmelt along the northern reaches of the Mississippi River to inundate the hardwood-dominated bottomlands of the lower Mississippi.
When the floodwaters recede and soils dry up in summer, logging crews harvest species of trees that include green ash. Being partly submerged for months encourages these trees to produce thin-walled cells with large gaps between them, creating a low-density wood prized by musical instrument makers. Since the 1950s, American guitar giant Fender Musical Instruments has used this kind of ash to create its iconic electric guitars. Countless music legends, from bluesman Muddy Waters to rockers Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones and Chrissie Hynde of the Pretenders, have loved their Fenders, and many say this wood gives the instruments a warm but crystal-clear twang. FORESTS 14/08/20 Diplodia fraxini and Diplodia subglobosa: The Main Species Associated with Cankers and Dieback of Fraxinus excelsior in North-Eastern Italy.
In Italy, after the first report in Friuli-Venezia Giulia along the border with Slovenia in 2009, ash dieback has successively been reported in Veneto, Tuscany and Trentino-Alto Adige.
Given its alarming expansion in European ash formations along the sub-montane belt of north-eastern Italy and the limited information about the associated fungal microorganisms; since 2017, a study has been conducted in order to isolate and characterize the fungal species involved in the aetiology of the disease. The surveys were conducted in six ash–maple forests distributed along the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia pre-Alpine regions (Italy). In each site, the health status of ash trees was assessed and a sample (shoot or branch) with the typical symptoms of the disease was taken from ten trees to isolate the associated pathogens.
The fungal colonies developed were identified using morphological features and DNA sequences. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1. FORESTS 27/05/20 Role of Root and Stem Base Fungi in Fraxinus angustifolia (Vahl) Dieback in Croatian Floodplain Forests. FORESTS 25/05/20 The Climatic Response of Tree Ring Width Components of Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and Common Oak (Quercus robur L.) from Eastern Europe. This paper aims to develop the first differentiated (earlywood—EW, latewood—LW, and total ring width—RW) dendrochronological series for ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) trees from the Republic of Moldova, and to analyze their climatic response and their spatio-temporal stability.
For this, 18 ash and 26 oak trees were cored from the Dobrușa protected area, Republic of Moldova, Eastern Europe, and new EW, LW, and RW chronologies were developed for ash and oak covering the last century. The obtained results showed that the RW and LW have a similar climatic response for both species, while EW is capturing interannual climate variations and has a different reaction. FOREST RESEARCH 06/12/10 Disease symptoms and fungi on dying ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior L.) in Staszów Forest District stands. Mycoscience Volume 59, Issue 1, January 2018, Phyllactinia fraxinicola, another Asian fungal pathogen on Fraxinus excelsior (common ash) introduced to Europe?
Biological Conservation Volume 225, September 2018, Implementing a new approach to effective conservation of genetic diversity, with ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in the UK as a case study. FORET PRIVEE FRANCAISE - mai 2012 - Autécologie du frêne commun. AGROPARISTECH - 2013 - Thèse en ligne : Diversité des réponses écophysiologiques et moléculaires pour un complexe de frênes européens (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl et Fraxinus excelsior L. et leurs hybrides) face à la contrainte hydrique.
Abstract : The latest climate change scenarios predict a rise in mean temperature in Europe of 2 to 4°C for 2099 (IPCC, 2007), associated with extreme climatic events such as severe droughts.
Knowing adaptation capabilities of tree species is crucial for understanding their responses and forest ecosystem fate in the near future. Our study object is a species complex inside the Fraxinus genus (ash, Oleaceae). In France, F. excelsior and F. angustifolia are autochthonous, form natural hybrid populations and show remarkable phenotypic and ecological plasticity. This could promote the emergence of new individuals (genotypes) more able to deal with fluctuating environments. Our objective is to characterise the capability of adaptation of different Fraxinus populations, representing the three statuses (F.excelsior, F.angustifolia and hybrids) under abiotic constraints (water constraint).
DG SANCO 19/04/18 Rapport OAV : United States 2018-6356 Certification programmes for the export of ash and oak wood Jan 2018 Report details. UICN 14/09/17 Des espèces de frêne et d’antilope naguère abondantes risquent l’extinction – Liste rouge de l’UICN. Cette mise à jour de la Liste Rouge UICN met aussi en évidence un déclin dramatique des sauterelles et des mille-pattes endémiques de Madagascar, ainsi que l’extinction de la pipistrelle de l’île Christmas, une espèce endémique de chauve-souris présente uniquement sur cette île.
La Liste rouge de l’UICN comporte à l’heure actuelle 87 967 espèces, dont 25 062 sont menacées d’extinction. « Les activités humaines poussent les espèces vers l’extinction à une telle vitesse qu’il est impossible d’évaluer leur déclin en temps réel », dit Mme Inger Andersen, Directrice générale de l’UICN. « Même des espèces que nous croyions abondantes et non menacées, comme certainesantilopes en Afrique ou les frênes aux États-Unis, sont maintenant confrontées à une menace imminente d’extinction. » Les frênes d’Amérique du Nord au bord de l’extinction Les frênes sont une composante essentielle des forêts nord-américaines.
Cinq espèces d’antilopes en déclin Nouvelles données relatives à la Panthère des neiges. EUROPEAN ATLAS OF FOREST TREE SPECIES - 2016 - Fraxinus excelsior in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY - 2013 - STRUCTURE AND GENETIC VARIATION OF DIPLODIA MUTILA ON DECLINING ASHES (FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR) I. Open Access Subscription Access W.
Kraj, T. Kowalski, M. Zarek doi: 10.4454/JPP.V95I3.015 Abstract. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN - DEC 2012 - Thèse en ligne : Characterization of ash (Fraxinus spp.) distribution in a Riparian forest i.