ANIMAL MODELS AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 14/04/20 Guidelines for the ethical review of laboratory animal welfare People’s Republic of China National Standard GB/T 35892‐2018 [Issued 6 February 2018 Effective from 1 September 2018] This document is the agreed English translation of the Guidelines for the ethical review of laboratory animal welfare1 prepared as described in the abstract.
The original Chinese version was drafted in accordance with the criteria set out in Standard GB/T1.1‐2009. This document is drafted in accordance with the criteria set out in Standard GB/T1.1‐2009. Front. Vet. Sci. 11/06/20 Welfare Impact of Carbon Dioxide Euthanasia on Laboratory Mice and Rats: A Systematic Review. Patricia V.
Turner1, 2*, Debra L. Hickman3, Judith Van Luijk4, Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga5, Jan M. Vera Baumans9, Woo S. Kathleen R. FRONT. VET. SCI. 05/03/20 Laboratory Animal Welfare Meets Human Welfare: A Cross-Sectional Study of Professional Quality of Life, Including Compassion Fatigue in Laboratory Animal Personnel. Introduction Laboratory animal personnel may be particularly at risk for workplace stress as a result of several factors related to working with laboratory animals—e.g., the constant making and breaking of human-animal bonds.
Many laboratory animal personnel are responsible for directly or indirectly caring for laboratory animals and often form attachments with them (1). While taking care of these animals, personnel may also perform or view procedures that cause pain and distress as part of the experiment—which alone could lead to occupational or perpetration-induced traumatic stress (2, 3). Then, at the end of a study, laboratory animals are often euthanized—sometimes by their caretaker without the choice to pass this responsibility to another worker—either to collect tissues for analysis, because they cannot be used in other studies for scientific reasons, or because they cannot be adopted out. VIB_BE 03/12/19 Belgian researchers commit to more transparency about animal testing. Belgium is internationally renowned for pioneering biological and biomedical research.
Basic research remains enormously important to fathom biological processes and disease mechanisms. Unfortunately, animals are still needed today for certain parts of this research. New medicines are also tested on animals before they go to the clinic. The regulations for the use of laboratory animals are strict. Animal experiments can only happen if there is no alternative available, and in some cases, they are required by law.
Four commitments to the general public. TOXINS 15/12/18 Alternative to Animal Use for Detecting Biologically Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type A. 1.
Introduction Staphylococcus aureus is a prevalent bacterial pathogen causing foodborne diseases that affect about a quarter million people every year in the United States (US) . Pathogenesis is brought about, most notably, by virulence factors comprising some twenty-three different staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by S. aureus and which are involved in food poisoning. These toxins affect the gastrointestinal tract, induce emesis, and activate the immune system by binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules of antigen presenting cells (APC).
They also bind to the variable region (Vβ) on the T-cell receptor forming a bridge between APC and T-cells, causing activation of CD4+ T-cells. TIERSCHUTZ - 2019 - Presentations of the 12 th Conference on Animal Testing 3R and Replacement Methods – Better Research, Less Animal Harm. SAGE JOURNALS 17/07/18 New Technologies as a Neglected Social Movement Outcome: The Case of Activism against Animal Experimentation. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2017; 63(11):923-928 Animal experimentation: A look into ethics, welfare and alternative methods.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Volume 110, February 2020, State of the science on alternatives to animal testing and integration of testing strategies for food safety assessments: Workshop proceedings. 1.
Introduction and purpose of the workshop Together, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the North American branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Food and Chemical Safety Committee developed a workshop to discuss emerging non-animal alternative toxicological methods and the considerations for their use in food safety assessments. The committee's primary objective is to promote science-based determinations of the chemical safety of foods to support the advancement of public health. PROCON 06/01/20 Cosmetics Tested on Animals Banned in Three States. Sources: Tal Axelrod, "Illinois Bans Animal-Tested Cosmetic Products," thehill.com, Jan. 4, 2020 Becky Bargh, "Illinois Becomes Latest State to Ban Animal Testing for Cosmetics," cosmeticsbusiness.com, Aug. 13, 2019 California Legislative Information, "1834.9," leginfo.legislature.ca.gov (accessed Jan. 6, 2020) California Legislative Information, "1834.9.5," leginfo.legislature.ca.gov (accessed Jan. 6, 2020) FindLaw, "New York Consolidated Laws, Public Health Law - PBH § 505.
Illinois General Assembly, "(410 ILCS 620/17.2) Sec. 17.2. PLOS 14/08/19 Laboratory animal welfare and human attitudes: A cross-sectional survey on heterospecific play or "rat tickling". Abstract Introduction Laboratory rat welfare is critically influenced by laboratory animal personnel through their implementation, or lack of implementation, of various enrichment techniques.
One such promising technique is heterospecific play, or “rat tickling”, which mimics aspects of rat rough-and-tumble play and can contribute to improving welfare, but may be infrequently implemented. PHYS_ORG 17/07/19 Animal experimentation in research: between animal welfare and scientific quality. In animal experimentation in research, it is important to ensure both the highest scientific quality and high animal welfare standards, yet in practice, this can lead to interdependencies and conflicts.
The Permanent Senate Commission on Animal Protection and Experimentation of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) calls on researchers to commit to animal welfare policies as an integral part of scientifically valid project design. To support this goal, the Senate Commission has now published guidelines on the design, planning and implementation of research projects involving animal experimentation. "With these guidelines, the Senate Commission wants to establish a closer link between the two elementary aspects of animal experimentation in research—animal welfare and scientific validity," says commission chair Prof.
Brigitte Vollmar. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1001; Development and Characterisation of a Human Chronic Skin Wound Cell Line—Towards an Alternative for Animal Experimentation. Background: Chronic skin wounds are a growing financial burden for healthcare providers, causing discomfort/immobility to patients.
Whilst animal chronic wound models have been developed to allow for mechanistic studies and to develop/test potential therapies, such systems are not good representations of the human chronic wound state. As an alternative, human chronic wound fibroblasts (CWFs) have permitted an insight into the dysfunctional cellular mechanisms that are associated with these wounds. However, such cells strains have a limited replicative lifespan and therefore a limited reproducibility/usefulness. INTECH 27/06/18 Alternatives to Animal Experimentation: Its Institutional Teaching and Scientific. 1. Introduction The research is focused today on the ethical, logistical, economic, scientific, and legal requirements. At the European level, Directive 2010/63 of the European Parliament and of the Council of September 22, 2010, on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes  must be highlighted, which is translated into Spanish legislation by Royal Decree 53/2013 [1, 2].
HUMANE SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL 23/10/19 Humane Society International and Japanese Coalition for Animal Welfare question future of animal experimentation in new report. TOKYO—Marking the 60th anniversary of the ‘3Rs’ principle of replacement, reduction and refinement of animals in science, the Japanese Coalition for Animal Welfare and Humane Society International have launched a new report, “Reconsidering the Future of Animal Experimentation,” featuring articles by experts on this issue, such as researchers on non-animal alternatives and lab animal scientists. JCAW and HSI have been collaborating to engage regulatory authorities and policymakers for the revision of Japan’s Animal Welfare Act (AWA), which just passed this year.
The revised AWA includes a supplementary provision that states that stakeholders will continue discussions on and review lab animal related issues. The two organizations will continue to work together to engage stakeholders and raise public awareness beyond this revision. JCAW representative Dr. FRONT. NEUROANAT 28/05/19 Animal Models and Animal Experimentation in the Development of Deep Brain Stimulation: From a Specific Controversy to a Multidimensional Debate.
Introduction Deep brain stimulation (DBS) appears to be one of the major neuroscientific therapeutic innovations of the last 30 years (Sackeim and George, 2008; Insel, 2013). Considering its therapeutic effects and the scientific perspectives it opens up, the technology is stirring the interest of public policies (Gorman, 2013), industry (Aranzazu and Cassier, 2019) and the media (Racine et al., 2007; Gilbert and Ovadia, 2011). High-frequency DBS delivers electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain by way of implanted electrodes connected to a battery-operated neurostimulator unit placed in the chest. Producing spectacular effects on the motor symptoms in essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease, DBS offers treatment perspectives for serious, treatment-resistant disorders in neurology and psychiatry (Lozano et al., 2019). This approach appears to be instructive for two reasons.
The characterization of these exchanges can, of course, be questioned. EUROGROUPFORANIMALS 13/11/17 COMMISSION REVIEW OF ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION LAW HIGHLIGHTS SCOPE FOR DELIVERING IMPROVEMENTS ON ANIMAL WELFARE. A recent Commission review on the animal experimentation Directive stresses the importance of unleashing its potential to seriously replace, reduce and refine (3Rs) the use of animals for testing, research or educational purposes.  The main concerns highlighted in the report include a need for improving the efficiency, effectiveness and consistency of project evaluation and authorisation processes before animals are used. The report also highlights the need for more transparency of information about the use of animals. Furthermore the review identifies the need to ensure high standards of relevant education and training as a means to ensure optimal uptake of the 3Rs. Key factors hindering fuller implementation of the 3Rs and use of alternatives are identified as a lack of knowledge, insufficient communication, the acceptance of alternatives and financial aspects.
Contacts: Lucy Mathieson, Communications Officer, Eurogroup for Animals, Email: email@example.com. EUREKALERT 17/06/19 Robotic fish to replace animal testing. The artificial fish surrogates should provide information about the flow conditions and expected damage and mortality of fish traveling through turbine installations. To date, up to 450,000 fish are used every year in live animal experiments in German hydroelectric power plants, according to the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment. Those tests, mandated by domestic regulation which enacts a European directive, evaluate the ability of the fish to pass through the turbines and thus assess the fish-friendliness of the plants. The RETERO research project, "Reducing animal testing to establish risk of injury to fish caused by passage through turbines by the use of robotic surrogates, computational fluid mechanics and predictive modeling", is funded by the German Federal Government with 1.4 million euros, and started in March 2019.
The future robotic fish will also feature a number of pressure and acceleration sensors. EUREKALERT 10/09/19 EPA announces plan to end required animal tests for chemical safety testing. WASHINGTON, D.C.-- The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine praised an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decision to phase out animal testing of chemical products. Eur J Intern Med. 2018 Feb;48:e31-e32. Advances in alternative non-animal testing methods represent a way to find new treatments for patients.
ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 09/10/19 Comparative Assessment of the Sensitivity of Fish Early‐Life Stage, Daphnia, and Algae Tests to the Chronic Ecotoxicity of Xenobiotics: Perspectives for Alternatives to Animal Testing. Classification and labeling of industrial chemicals, biocides, and plant protection products are conducted for acute and long‐term aquatic hazards to aquatic life, as requested by the Global Harmonization System for classification and labeling of chemicals (United Nations 2011) and its European application (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures; European Commission 2008).
Long‐term effects are measured in standard tests covering 3 trophic levels: typically, the fish early‐life stage (FELS) toxicity test, the chronic Daphnia reproduction test, and the algae growth inhibition test. The no‐observed‐effect concentration (NOEC) or median effect concentration (EC50) obtained with the most sensitive of the 3 organisms is used for the environmental hazard classification. ANIMALS 25/11/19 Assessing Affective State in Laboratory Rodents to Promote Animal Welfare—What Is the Progress in Applied Refinement Research?
ANIMALS 08/10/18 Emotions and Ethical Decision-Making in Animal Ethics Committees. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. vol.91 supl.1 Rio de Janeiro 2019 Epub Sep 04, 2017 Animal models in biological and biomedical research - experimental and ethical concerns. ALTEX - 2019 - Science and alternative methods: Integrated approaches. ALTEX - 2019 - Give Meaning to Alternative Methods to Animal Testing. ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING 28/12/18 Cosmetic Regulation and Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in India01/02/19 Current and Future Perspectives on Skin Tissue Engineering: Key Features of Biomedical Research, Translational Assessment, and Clinical. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) is the Central Authority for discharging regulatory functions relating to drugs and cosmetics, assigned to the Central Government under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (D&C Act), and Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945.
It is headed by Drugs Controller General (India), headquartered in New Delhi. The vision of CDSCO is to protect and promote public health in India. It has as mission “to safeguard and enhance public health by assuring the safety, efficacy and quality of drugs, cosmetics and medical devices”. Each of the 29 States and 7 Union Territories of India has its own Drug Control Authority (SDCA) headed by the Drug Controller/Commissioner/Director, who is responsible for discharging regulatory functions assigned under the provisions of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, and Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is a statutory organization under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986. ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION - 2018 - Giving meaning to alternative methods to animal testing. Cienc. Rural vol.48 no.8 Santa Maria 2018 Epub July 23, 2018 Animal welfare in experimental orthopedic surgery of dogs: an analysis of the Brazilian view. PLOS 14/08/19 Laboratory animal welfare and human attitudes: A cross-sectional survey on heterospecific play or "rat tickling".
SAGE JOURNALS 17/07/18 New Technologies as a Neglected Social Movement Outcome: The Case of Activism against Animal Experimentation. UNIVERSITY OF KONSTANZ - 2017 - Opinion versus evidence for the need to move away from animal testing. Technological Forecasting and Social Change Volume 118, May 2017, How institutional logics hamper innovation: The case of animal testing. FRONTIERS BLOG 14/03/18 Top prize for article on computer model that could replace animal testing.
By using human data, rather than animal data, the model improves how test results translate to humans and reduces the need for animal experimentation. Image: Shutterstock New software predicts the clinical risk of drug-induced side effects for the heart with higher accuracy than animal experiments. Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 30; Alternative Methods to Animal Testing for the Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients: An Overview.
ANIMAL WELFARE INSTITUTE 07/06/18 URGENT ACTION NEEDED TO PROTECT ANIMALS IN EXPERIMENTS. BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH - AOUT 2017 - Brazilian attitudes towards the use of animals in research Atitudes. Research & Reviews: Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 27/10/16 Alternatives to Animal Experimentation. LABANIMAL - APRIL 2017 - Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation. Animals 2017, 7(3), 24; Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities. UNILEVER 04/04/15 UNILEVER’S POSITION ON DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO ANIMAL TESTING.
WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY 07/10/15 Innovative neuron test detects unknown marine toxins and can replace animal testing. Marine toxins are toxins produced naturally by algae. Shellfish such as mussels that feed on algae, can accumulate these toxins in their bodies. When a human or animal consumes contaminated shellfish, various symptoms of poisoning can occur, such as memory loss, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea or paralysis. Mice testing To test whether shellfish are free of such marine toxins, both chemical tests and, in most parts of the world, mice tests are used. In the mice test (which is not used in the Netherlands), an extract of the shellfish is injected into the mouse’s abdominal cavity.
Neuronal cell line Nicolas’s research initially focused on toxins that can cause paralysis, called neurotoxins. VIB_BE 05/03/15 European researchers point to the importance of animal testing. Page Content Zone 1 More than hundred European scientific organizations, including VIB, oppose the citizens’ initiative Stop Vivisection to ban all research using animals in Europe. With the support of these scientific organizations the Wellcome Trust (UK) has issued a clear statement which specifies that animal experimentation is still unavoidable to enable important breakthroughs in biomedical research. VETERINARY RECORD - 2015 - One Health: a concept led by Africa, with global benefits. ONE Health evolved from the recognition that an interdisciplinary approach is required to understand complex health problems, and that the health of humans and animals are inextricably linked.
Through closer cooperation between the human, veterinary and environmental health sectors, added value, in terms of health metrics, cost savings and environmental services is achievable. Although the One Health concept has been recognised for many years, particularly since the seminal work of Calvin Schwabe (Schwabe 1984), many challenges remain in making it operational. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Volume 73, Issue 1, October 2015, Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 04/2010; A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: genotoxicity. A COLIPA analysis. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2015 Mar; 54(2): 209–213. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond. Réponses parlementaires Européennes. BIOMED CENTRAL BLOG 27/02/15 Reducing publication bias in animal research A workshop on publication bias in animal research reveals the importance of publishing negative results and the role of preclinical study registration. But is there a one-size solut. BIOME 23/02/15 Making the most of animal research: from meta-analysis to trial registration. MAFNZ 28/06/11 Auckland scientist wins award for reducing animal testing.
MEDIATEUR EUROPEEN 11/12/14 Décision : Unnecessary tests on animals by registrants of chemical substances. PLOS 06/06/14 The Need for Randomization in Animal Trials: An Overview of Systematic Reviews. North-West University - Dec 2012 - Dissertation en ligne : Animal welfare and the law: towards legal regulation of the welfare of laboratory animals in South Africa. FDA 10/06/14 Product Testing. NIH_GOV 07/10/14 Alternatives to Animal Testing - Questions and Answers about ICCVAM. Environments 2014, 1, 14-30 Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing.
North-West University - Dec 2012 - Dissertation en ligne : Animal welfare and the law: towards legal regulation of the welfare o. ALTEX - SEPT 2012 - 17th European Congress on Alternatives to Animal Testing. PHYSORG 13/11/12 Artificial liver to replace animal testing, potential to accelerate development of new drugs. Medicolegal and Bioethics 2012:2 13–29 REACH, animal testing, and the precautionary principle.
Acta Cir. Bras. vol.27 no.9 São Paulo Sept. 2012 Progress in animal experimentation ethics. A case study from a Brazilian medica. THE GUARDIAN 19/10/12 Public opposition to animal testing grows.