PLOS 01/06/17 Introducing the TrypanoGEN biobank: A valuable resource for the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis. PLOS 20/04/17 Human African trypanosomiasis control: Achievements and challenges. Abstract Sleeping sickness, also known as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is a neglected disease that impacts 70 million people living in 1.55 million km2 in sub-Saharan Africa.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, there have been multiple HAT epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, with the most recent epidemic in the 1990s resulting in about half a million HAT cases reported between 1990 and 2015. Here we review the status of HAT disease at the current time and the toolbox available for its control.
We also highlight future opportunities under development towards novel or improved interventions. PLOS 20/04/17 Ten years of Chagas disease research: Looking back to achievements, looking ahead to challenges. Citation: Dumonteil E, Herrera C (2017) Ten years of Chagas disease research: Looking back to achievements, looking ahead to challenges.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(4): e0005422. PARASITES & VECTORS 22/09/15 High prevalence of trypanosomes in European badgers detected using ITS-PCR. A total of 82 badger blood samples were tested for trypanosome infection using the ITS-Nested PCR method .
Twenty-nine out of the 82 DNA samples amplified using ITS-Nested PCR producing band sizes of approximately 1271 bp indicating the badgers were positive for trypanosomes. This gives a prevalence of 35.4 % (25.9 %–46.2 %; 95 % CI). The 18S PCR was carried out on badger DNA samples that were positive for trypanosome DNA, to identify the species detected and confirm that the ITS-PCR technique was indeed detecting the target species (T. pestanai). The novel 28S region was successfully amplified, producing a band size of 2460 bp, and sequenced [Accession Number KR527480]. No variation was seen between badger trypanosome samples using this marker.
Vaccine Volume 34, Issue 26, 3 June 2016, Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Chagas disease. SAMARITANS PURSE INTERNATIONAL HEALTH FORUM via YOUTUBE 26/04/16 Webinar: African Sleeping Sickness - Trypanosomiasis (2014) Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.48 no.4 Uberaba July/Aug. 2015 Chagas disease: still a challenge around the World.
Editorial Chagas disease: still a challenge around the World.
PLOS 11/12/15 Stakeholder Narratives on Trypanosomiasis, Their Effect on Policy and the Scope for One Health. Introduction Trypanosomiasis Trypanosomiasis is caused by protozoan parasites transmitted by the tsetse fly .
In people, the parasites cause Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness), a serious illness which kills without appropriate treatment. From a peak of approximately 300,000 cases per year in 1995, cases have declined to less than 10,000 per year as a result of improved control measures . PLOS 28/06/16 Chagas Disease Has Not Been Controlled in Ecuador. Citation: Dumonteil E, Herrera C, Martini L, Grijalva MJ, Guevara AG, Costales JA, et al. (2016) Chagas Disease Has Not Been Controlled in Ecuador.
PLoS ONE 11(6): e0158145. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158145 Editor: Herbert B. PLOS 19/05/16 Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. Citation: Squarre D, Kabongo I, Munyeme M, Mumba C, Mwasinga W, Hachaambwa L, et al. (2016) Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Kafue National Park, Zambia.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(5): e0004567. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004567 Editor: Carlos Franco-Paredes, Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, UNITED STATES. PARASITES & VECTORS 30/01/16 Assessment of animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) vulnerability in cattle-owning communities of sub-Saharan Africa. Results of the cluster analysis: supplementary variables We then investigated the difference between selected supplementary variables and membership of the different clusters (Table 5).
The majority of communities did not report using ITC, (>80 % in every cluster). Communities in cluster 1 were most likely to believe that centralised governments (67.4 %) or NGO’s (17.4 %) were responsible for control. With cluster 2 and 3 more likely to name district officials or individuals. PARASITES & VECTORS 27/01/16 Increased mortality attributed to Chagas disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Our study is the first to review, collate and analyse available (published) studies on mortality rates associated with Chagas disease using a robust and coherent meta-analytical framework.
One of the motivations for this meta-analysis was to assess whether Chagas disease induces a higher risk of mortality compared to control populations with similar clinical symptoms. The overall excess mortality, estimated as a relative risk ratio, was equal to 1.74 (95 % CI 1.49–2.03), which was robust to both publication bias (RR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.19–1.70) and highest quality studies (RR = 2.07, 95 % CI 1.54–2.78). Interestingly, this (statistically significant) magnitude of excess mortality appeared to affect equally patients with mild, moderate or severe symptoms (relative to their baseline, background mortality).
We found no significant impact of sex and study location (country) on excess mortality. PARASITES & VECTORS 22/07/15 Cost analysis of options for management of African Animal Trypanosomiasis using interventions targeted at cattle in Tororo District; south-eastern Uganda. This study analysed the costs incurred for applying RAP to 1,409 cattle in 12 villages in Tororo District to assess the applicability of RAP for AAT management in small-scale livestock production systems.
Trypanocidal chemotherapy and RAP were targeted at AAT control. Non-tsetse control activities related to monitoring project effectiveness (Trypanosome species and T.parva prevalences) namely: blood sampling, herd structure records and deworming, comprised 55 % of the costs. Such research costs, together with administrative overheads often account for a high proportion of the expenditure for AAT control and vary greatly from strategy to strategy but are often omitted from published cost figures for interventions .
For technologies described as lower cost technologies such as RAP, a substantial share of the costs has previously  been reported and confirmed here (77.6 % of all costs) to be due to delivery. PARASITES & VECTORS 30/09/15 Studies of trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa valley, north-eastern Zambia. Diagnosis of AAT and HAT in endemic regions remains a big challenge. In the present study, several tests were applied to determine AAT infection in cattle and goats and the presence of trypanosome species in tsetse vectors. As expected, microscopy exhibited relatively lower sensitivity than PCR and LAMP. Of note, there was poor agreement among the test methods used for detection of trypanosomes species in animal blood and tsetse flies (Kappa <0.40).
For instance, the failure of PCR and LAMP to detect and identify 6 parasitologically positive cattle samples in this study was unexpected. These discrepancies may be resolved by the use of more sensitive trypanosome-species-specific PCR and/or LAMP. The major advantage of molecular tests over microscopy is for epidemiological studies to identify trypanosome species. Nature. 2016 Aug 8.Proteasome inhibition for treatment of leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and sleeping sickness.
THE LANCET - NOV 2015 - Old and new challenges in Chagas disease. Infect Dis Poverty. 2015 Dec 28;4:60. Preventing the transmission of American trypanosomiasis and its spread into non-endemic countries. Glob Heart. 2015 Sep;10(3):139-44. The burden of Chagas disease: estimates and challenges. To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user or purchase a subscription. Click here to view the full text on ScienceDirect.
Figure 1 Chagas disease seroprevalence estimates for 2005 by country. Figure 2 Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) attributable to Chagas disease, per 100,000 people, for 2010, by country. Figure 3 Seroprevalence estimates from community-based studies conducted in Brazil from 1990 onward [14,35–45]. Figure 4. Genome Announc. 2016 Aug 4;4(4). pii: e00715-16. A Novel Bunyavirus-Like Virus of Trypanosomatid Protist Parasites. Bunyaviridae comprise >350 species, often arthropod-borne and including serious human, animal, and plant pathogens (1). In searching for novel viruses from trypanosomatid protists (Kinetoplastida, supergroup Excavata), we found a new viral element within the insect parasite Leptomonas moramango (2).
RNA was prepared from an uncloned strain of parasites (2) using TRIzol reagent (Thermo Fisher), treatment with DNase I (Thermo Fisher), and purified with RNA Clean & Concentrator-25 (Zymo Research). Replicative viral double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) were visualized following treatment with S1 nuclease (Thermo Fisher), separation by agarose gel electrophoresis, and staining by ethidium bromide (3). FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 31/05/15 Escaping Deleterious Immune Response in Their Hosts: Lessons from Trypanosomatids. Clinical and Epidemiological Importance of Neglected Diseases Trypanosomatid parasites interact with a wide range of insects and mammals to complete their life cycles. Some species, particularly Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania spp. are pathogenic for humans, causing, respectively, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness), Chagas’ disease, and cutaneous, mucocutaneaous, and visceral Leishmaniasis (VL).
These infectious eukaryotic parasites have been described and identified over a century ago; however, as of today, no vaccines are available and the availability of effective prophylactic and therapeutic drugs remains limited. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected and that 100,000 people die each year of trypanosomiasis or Chagas’ disease (1).
FDA 11/10/15 Chagas Disease: An Emerging Public Health Concern. Chagas Disease Fact Sheet PDF Enfermedad de Chagas PDF On April 28, 2015, FDA met with patients during one of FDA’s Patient-Focused Drug Development meetings to discuss patients’ concerns regarding their symptoms and treatment options for Chagas disease. These meetings are important as patients have the opportunity to convey their concerns about current medications and the types of medications they would like to see in the future. BenznidazoleNifurtimox. EQUUSMAGAZINE - AVRIL 2016 - First U.S. case of equine Chagas disease. DeBakey Institute For Cardiovascular Education via YOUTUBE 24/02/16 “Chagas Disease in Non-Endemic Countries" (Carlos A. Morillo, M.D.) February 18, 2016. CDC 01/12/15 Triatomine Bug FAQs. BioMed Research International Volume 2015 (2015), Overview of the Diagnostic Methods Used in the Field for Human African Trypanosomiasis: What Could Change in the Next Years?
Acta Trop. 2016 Apr;156:68-78. A global systematic review of Chagas disease prevalence among migrants. CDC EID - AOUT 2016 – Au sommaire notamment : Chagas Disease Screening in Maternal Donors of Publicly Banked Umbilical Cord Blood, United States. Congenital Trypanosomiasis in Child Born in France to African Mother - Volume 22, Number 5—May 2016. Suggested citation for this article To the Editor: Sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis, is a neglected tropical parasitic infection transmitted by the tsetse fly bite. In central and western Africa, trypanosomiasis is caused by the Trypanosoma brucei subspecies gambiense. Chronic symptoms of the disease include neurologic impairment and sleep disorders (1).
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.46 no.4 Uberaba July/Aug. 2013 The discovery of Chagas disease (1908-1909): great successes and certain misunderstandings and challenges. Rev. costarric. salud pública vol.22 no.1 San José ene./jun. 2013 Diagnostic confirmation of Chagas disease screening in Costa Rica. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. vol.22 no.2 Jaboticabal Apr./June 2013 Canine visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease among dogs in Araguaína, Tocantins. Preventive Veterinary Medicine Volume 120, Issues 3–4, 1 July 2015, The potential of canine sentinels for reemerging Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. PNAS 24/03/15 Environments and trypanosomiasis risks for early herders in the later Holocene of the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya. Author Affiliations Edited by Richard G. Klein, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and approved February 4, 2015 (received for review December 14, 2014) Significance Herding was the earliest form of African food production and transformed local populations of people and animals.
Herders migrated from eastern to southern Africa around 2,000 years ago, but only in small numbers. Abstract Specialized pastoralism developed ∼3 kya among Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan herders in eastern Africa. Footnotes. Parasitology. 2014 May;141(6):837-48. Modelling inter-human transmission dynamics of Chagas disease: analysis and application.
Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:322 Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania. MEMORIAS 24/09/12 Biology, diversity and strategies for the monitoring and control of triatomines - Chagas disease vectors. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz , Rio de Janeiro: 1-6, 2015 New scenarios of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Orinoco region of Colombia. THE LANCET 28/07/15 Old and new challenges in Chagas disease. JOURNAL OF VENOMOUS ANIMAL AND TOXINS - 2013 - Challenges and perspectives of Chagas disease: a review. Journal of Nature and Science, Vol.1, No.1, e29, 2015 Emerging human trypanosomiasis in Southeast Asia: a coming new threat? International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife Volume 3, Issue 2, August 2014 Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review.
Highlights. Infect Genet Evol. 2011 Aug;11(6):1250-5. First evidence that parasite infecting apparent aparasitemic serological suspects in human African trypanosomiasis are Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and are similar to those found in patients. Folia Parasitologica, vol. 61 (2014), issue 6 High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes. EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL - 2012 - Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in an Indigenous Kariña Community in Eastern Venezuela, EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL - 2012 - Globalization of Chagas Disease: A Growing Concern in Nonendemic Countries. EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL - 2012 - Resting and Dynamic Electrocardiography in Dogs with Experimental Chagas Cardiomyopathy. Clinical Medicine 2015 Vol 15, No 1: 70–3 Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries. Clin Epidemiol. 2014; 6: 257–275. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis.
Références PLOS. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 13/11/13 A review on trypanosomosis in dogs and cats. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 106(6): 641-645, September 2011 Chronic phase of Chagas disease: why should it be treated? A comprehensive review. Chronic phase of Chagas disease: why should it be treated? A comprehensive review José Rodrigues Coura +; José Borges-Pereira. MEDLINEPLUS 05/07/12 300,000 People in U.S. Living With Chagas Disease: Report. THURSDAY, July 5, 2012 (HealthDay News) -- As many as 300,000 people in the United States may have chronic Chagas disease -- mostly spread by blood-sucking insects -- health officials report.
AGRILIFE 27/07/15 Texas A&M entities helping understand, monitor Chagas disease. SAN ANTONIO – To keep both animals and humans protected from Chagas disease, Texas A&M University System entities have been studying the parasite-host-vector interaction at sites in South Central Texas. Parasitology. 2014 May;141(6):837-48. Modelling inter-human transmission dynamics of Chagas disease: analysis and application. BLOG PLOS 03/03/15 Chagas Disease: The New Numbers. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife Volume 3, Issue 2, August 2014 Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review. UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA 16/02/12 UGA animal vaccine may slow deadly spread of Chagas disease. Acta Tropica Volume 124, Issue 1, October 2012 Prevalence of Chagas disease in pregnant women and incidence of congenital transm. Trends in Parasitology Vol.26 No.12 2010 Evolution of dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes: how, and how often?
Journal of Tropical Medicine Volume 2012 (2012), Biologic and Genetics Aspects of Chagas Disease at Endemic Areas. Chungara, Revista de Antropología Chilena Volumen 43, Nº 2, 2011. Páginas 315-322 PAST AND PRESENT OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN NORTHERN. FOX NEWS 31/05/12 Chagas Disease: A New Global Pandemic? NEWS MEDICAL 16/03/12 Warming climate may increase risk from Chagas disease. MEMORIAS DO INSTITUTO OSWALDO CRUZ Vol. 107(2) March 2012 Au sommaire:Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding. INTECH - MARS 2012 - Advances in Serological Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease by Using Recombinant Proteins.
Clin Infect Dis. (2012) 54 (6): Oral Transmission of Chagas Disease. Veterinary Parasitology, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 14 July 2011 Vector-borne parasitic zoonoses: emerging. ICT 04/11/14 Undiagnosed, Undertreated Chagas Disease Emerging as U.S. Public Health Threat.