background preloader

Actualités anglophones

Facebook Twitter

STATE OF THE PLANET 14/08/19 How Synthetic Biology Can Help the Environment. BASF inserted a gene into a corn plant that makes it more drought-resistant. Photo: BASF Most environmental science is focused on how to turn back the clock, not push it forward, says Ben Bostick, a geochemist at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. “We think about how we can roll back our footprint, and not so much about how can we make our footprint bigger in a positive way,” he said. “But there are many examples of synthetic biology that I think actually have a lot of potential in the environment. Think of how we can help our environment just by doing things like improving the materials we make using synthetic biology.” Synthetic biology (synbio) is the construction of biological components, such as enzymes and cells, or functions and organisms that don’t exist in nature, or their redesign to perform new functions.

Since 2011, when I wrote a general introduction to synbio, the field has grown rapidly. Dealing with pollution CRISPR was used to give fruit flies red fluorescent eyes. Fuels. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-006568/2017 Synthetic biology risk assessment and institutional oversight. Synthetic biology is a newly emerging and fast-growing field. As with many emerging technologies, the applications and products associated with it can be used as a vehicle for positive change and innovation, such as in the fields of medicine, materials and biofuels. However, these new applications also bring with them potential risks, and should therefore be evaluated from a legal, social, economic and ethical perspective. Key to mitigating such uncertainty is updating existing risk management frameworks developed for the related fields, such as genetic engineering. Additional institutional oversight is also needed in order to fully assess the bioethical implications and potential ramifications of this emerging field.

In 2015, the Commission received a set of Opinions on synthetic biology from its Scientific Committees on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR), Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) and Consumer Safety (SCCS). 1. COMMISSION EUROPEENNE - 2017 - Présentation : Synthetic Biology activities in European Biotechnology European Biotechnology Programmes. INTEGRATING EXPOSURE SCIENCE ACROSS DIVERSE COMMUNITIES - OCT 2017 - ISES 2017 Abstract book. Au sommaire notamment: WE-SY-C1: Synthetic Biology and Exposure Science: Integrating Chemistry, Genetic Engineering, and Risk Management.

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY - OCT 2017 - SimPath licenses novel ORNL system for enhanced synthetic biology. CSIRO_AU 29/05/17 synthetic biology. CDC 24/01/17 Synthetic Biology and Occupational Risk. Forty two years ago, in February 1975, the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA [1] established guiding principles for safe conduct of experiments utilizing recombinant DNA technology, which facilitated the creation of a biotechnology industry in the 1980s. Since then, biotechnology advanced to its second-generation, also called “synthetic biology.”

Synthetic biology involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems and includes two closely-related capabilities both of which may have wide utility in commerce and medicine. 1. Parts for Design and Assembly. While the transfer of already existing genes from one cell to another characterized an earlier phase of the field of biotechnology, synthetic biology involves the design, assembly, synthesis, or manufacture of new genomes, biological pathways, devices or organisms not found in nature. Synthetic biology promises tremendous societal benefits in treating human genetic disease. Berg, P., D. GENETIC LITERACY PROJECT 07/02/17 Health care, energy, food could be transformed by synthetic biology. DW 27/07/17 Living Planet: Hacking nature From GMO crops to synthetically produced milk that eliminates animal welfare concerns, bio-hackers are reprogramming nature. Is synthetic biology the exciting scientific frontier that will ensure we can feed the p.

Share Permalink. PLOS 04/01/17 Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications. Abstract Synthetic biology (SB) applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty.

Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES) in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. Citation: Cummings CL, Kuzma J (2017) Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications. Editor: Igor Linkov, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, UNITED STATES Received: June 30, 2016; Accepted: December 3, 2016; Published: January 4, 2017 Copyright: © 2017 Cummings, Kuzma. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Funding: This study was funded by the Alfred P. Introduction Methodology Fig 3. BBSRC 22/03/17 Transforming our future: synthetic biology. In recent weeks, synthetic biology’s potential to revolutionise a wide range of industries has really come to the fore.

As part of their breakthrough science and technologies conference series, a Royal Society meeting entitled ‘Synthetic Biology – does industry get it?’ Brought together researchers from academia and industry to reflect on recent progress and the potential transformative impact of synthetic biology. Christina Smolke (Stanford University) opened the presentations and asked whether synthetic biology and biotechnology can provide new supply chain routes for medicines – particularly natural product-derived molecules which have challenged even the most talented of medicinal synthetic chemists. She described research, carried out over the past decade, which has culminated in the engineering of yeast to express 26 genes, from 4 different species, such that the yeast can now biosynthesise opioids from sugar – quite an achievement!

Related posts (based on tags and chronology): FRIENDS OF THE EARTH 20/09/16 Shopper’s Guide to Synthetic Biology. Gene-silenced apples that never turn brown, synthetic biology stevia and vanillin created with genetically engineered yeast: these are just some of the new generation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making their way into food and consumer products. They have come this far in the absence of proper safety assessment, oversight or labeling and many are misleadingly marketed as “natural” and “sustainable.” Friends of the Earth and the ETC Group released a new “Shopper’s Guide to Synthetic Biology” to help consumers avoid GMOs and find truly natural and sustainable non-GMO options. The “Shopper’s Guide to Synthetic Biology” provides information on: Which GMO 2.0 products are in stores now or on their way;Concerns about GMOs 2.0, including a lack of safety assessment and labeling, possible risks to human health and the environmental and negative impacts on small farmers;What consumers can do to avoid GMOs 2.0, such as choosing organic food.

View and download the shopper’s guides. FRIENDS OF THE EARTH - CTA - ETC - SEPT 2016 - The Principles for the Oversight of Synthetic Biology. FAS USDA 29/06/17 Synthèse : Singapore - 7th International Meeting on Synthetic Biology (SB7.0) Journal of Science Communication - 2017 - Synthetic biology: below the radar. Centre for Biosafety (Norway) - DEC 2016 - Synthetic biology – biosafety and contribution to addressing societal challenge. EUROPEAN PLANT SCIENCE ORGANISATION 07/12/16 Synthetic Biology is much more than the application of new breeding techniques. CELL CHEMICAL BIOLOGY - 2016 - Synthetic Biology-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics for Infectious Disease. Synthetic Biology 28/09/14 Synthetic Biology and Genetic Engineering: Parallels in Risk Assessment.

THE PLANT JOURNAL 02/08/16 Synthetic biology for basic and applied plant research. J Exp Bot. 2017 Jul 10;68(15):4057-4074. Synthetic biology approaches for the production of plant metabolites in unicellular organisms. CORDIS_EUROPA_EU - projet de recherche 2017-2018 - Centre of Plant Synthetic Biology for Bio-engineering and Sustainable Agriculture. Centre of Plant Synthetic Biology for Bio-engineering and Sustainable Agriculture From 2017-09-01 to 2018-08-31, ongoing project Project details Total cost: EU contribution: Coordinated in: Czech Republic Funding scheme: CSA - Coordination and support action Objective We propose to create a joint venture between Central European Institute of Technology at Masaryk University (CEITEC MU), an emerging flagship research center in Brno, Czech Republic, and VIB, an advanced biotechnological institute in Ghent, Belgium. We propose to create a joint venture between Central European Institute of Technology at Masaryk University (CEITEC MU), an emerging flagship research center in Brno, Czech Republic, and VIB, an advanced biotechnological institute in Ghent, Belgium.

Expand / Contract(+) Coordinator Masarykova univerzita EU contribution: EUR 250 000 Zerotinovo namesti 960177 BRNO STREDCzech Republic Activity type: Higher or Secondary Education Establishments Contact the organisation Participants. EHP - 2010 - Synthetic Biology: Environmental Health Implications of a New Field. LLOYD’S EMERGING RISKS TEAM REPORT - JUILLET 2009 - SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSEMENT via EUROPA_EU - JANV 2017 - Présentation : Synthetic biology in agriculture and challenges for risk governance.

TRAFFIC - 2016 - SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY, PRODUCT SUBSTITUTION AND THE BATTLE AGAINST ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE. PHYS_ORG 24/08/16 Algae as vessels for synthetic biology. Algae (a term used to group many photosynthetic organisms into a rather heterologous mash-up) do not have a kind place in the public imagination. Take for example the following passage from Stephen King's Pet Semetary: "Dead fields under a November sky, scattered rose petals brown and turning up at the edges, empty pools scummed with algae, rot, decomposition, dust… " Leaving aside their use in a horror novel as a way to set an image of decay, algae attract significant scientific attention, and are even considered cool (well, at least by some). But when I tell people I work on algal Synbio, one question that eventually comes up (or is silently implied) is why do I bother, when there are more prominent and better-developed systems? In this blog I will try to partly address this point of view, as well as provide a small perspective on the subject.

In terms of algal synthetic biology and biotechnology, there are two main research domains: eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria. IBIOEDUCATION VIA YOUTUBE 05/01/16 Synthetic Biology: Synthetic Biology and Escherichia coli. IBIOEDUCATION VIA YOUTUBE 05/01/16 Synthetic Biology: Engineering a Bioplastic-Producing E. Coli Cell Factory - Group 1. THE CONVERSATION 03/02/16 Three ways synthetic biology could annihilate Zika and other mosquito-borne diseases. In just a few short weeks, Zika has shot from being an obscure infection to a headline-hitting public health disaster.

The virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas (and potentially beyond), is suspected of being associated with birth defects that affect brain development and currently has no specific vaccine or treatment. Understandably, scientists are scrambling to respond to what the World Health Organization is now calling a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern.” In the arsenal of weapons against the mosquito-borne disease, there are tried and tested approaches that include the liberal application of insecticides and repellents, widespread use of mosquito nets and elimination of breeding sites.

Yet to combat Zika and other mosquito-borne disease, more is needed. Which is why scientists are increasingly turning to emerging technologies such as synthetic biology for solutions. Turn off a gene and goodbye mosquitoes Fast vaccine development and instant delivery. CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY - SEPT 2015 - REPORT OF THE ADHOC TECHNICAL EXPERT GROUP ON SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY. EUROPE 09/12/15 Final Opinion on Synthetic Biology III: Risks to the environment and biodiversity and research priorities. Public Health (09-12-2015) Final Opinion on Synthetic Biology III: Risks to the environment and biodiversity and research priorities Today, the European Commission and its non-food Scientific Committees1 publish their final Opinion on Synthetic Biology III: Risks to the environment and biodiversity related to synthetic biology and research priorities in the field of synthetic biology.

This is the last in a set of three scientific Opinions2 on Synthetic Biology (SynBio). The Opinion identifies major gaps in knowledge to be considered for performing a reliable risk assessment. Standardised techniques to monitor biocontainment and survival in environments outside the bioreactor and to generate comparative data for use in quantitative biocontainment assessment. The Opinion goes on to provide research recommendations resulting from gaps identified. More information: 2 Synthetic Biology I Opinion– DefinitionSynthetic Biology II Opinion - Risk assessment methodologies and safety aspects.

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15 (2014) Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4): e34368. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape. Life 2014, 4(4), 1092-1116; Synthetic Biology: A Bridge between Artificial and Natural Cells. Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-5270, USA * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Received: 1 October 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014 Artificial cells are simple cell-like entities that possess certain properties of natural cells. In general, artificial cells are constructed using three parts: (1) biological membranes that serve as protective barriers, while allowing communication between the cells and the environment; (2) transcription and translation machinery that synthesize proteins based on genetic sequences; and (3) genetic modules that control the dynamics of the whole cell.

Artificial cells are minimal and well-defined systems that can be more easily engineered and controlled when compared to natural cells. MDPI and ACS Style Ding, Y.; Wu, F.; Tan, C. View more citation formats AMA Style. J. CRAIG VENTER INSTITUTE - MAY 2014 - SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY AND THE U.S. BIOTECHNOLOGY REGULATORY SYSTEM: Challenges and Options. IATP 07/08/14 From GMO to SMO: how synthetic biology evades regulation - See more at: Products derived from synthetic biology (popularly called synbio), a rapidly growing new technology, are beginning to enter the marketplace without a regulatory framework in place that provides for pre-market safety assessment of its unique risks to health and the environment. In the very near future, a host of food and agricultural products could be on the marketplace without labeling and in natural ecosystems without biosafety controls or indeed, understanding about the effect of Synthetically Modified Organisms (SMOs) on biological diversity.

This fact sheet gives a short overview of synbio, a few of its applications to food, agriculture and consumer products, and an explanation of the U.S. government’s rationale for applying a nearly thirty-year-old policy for deregulating Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), and now, SMOs as well. Synthetic biology: from the laptop to the projected $38.7 billion global market of 2020 The U.S. regulatory outlook for synbio The U.S. Conclusion 2. 3. GRIST 05/06/14 The next front in the GMO war: Synthetic biology. The New York Times recently revealed that some soap companies were replacing the palm oil in their products with a substitute made by yeast algae. The controversial part is that the yeast algae are genetically altered — they’re the product of a new discipline known as synthetic biology.

I got a crash course in synthetic biology recently, and it looks to me as if it will be the next front in the never-ending GMO war. So let’s get up to speed. Basically, synthetic biology refers to creating genes from scratch. Instead of cutting and pasting DNA from, say, a strawberry into yeast, you type in the DNA that you want, print it out, and splice that into yeast — or whatever else you like. Here’s a great video explainer: If you are enthralled and want more, here’s another feature on synthetic biology from the science program Quest. But wait: Doesn’t palm oil production destroy rainforests? The problem is that synthetic biology isn’t mature enough to do that yet. This is still what I believe. Front Microbiol. 2014; 5: 451. Synthetic biology applications in industrial microbiology. FAPESP - 2014 - Challenges for a competitive synthetic biology in Brazil.

Curr Synthetic Sys Biol 2013, 1:1 Synthetic Biology Based Biosensors and the Emerging Governance Issues. COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS - FEV 2015 - Mitigating the Risks of Synthetic Biology. Author: Gigi K. Gronvall, Senior Associate, Center for Health Security, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Publisher Council on Foreign Relations Press Release Date February 2015 17 pages Share Overview Synthetic biology is a relatively new field that aims to make biology easier to engineer and more amenable to rational design. Gigi Kwik Gronvall, senior associate at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Center for Health Security and associate professor of medicine and public health at the University of Pittsburgh, discusses the possibility of biological accidents and the development and use of biological weapons in this new CFR Discussion Paper.

This publication is sponsored by the Center for Preventive Action (CPA) and is made possible by the generous support of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 17/10/14 New and emerging issues: synthetic biology - Draft decision submitted by the Chair of Working Group II. Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology via INTECH 15/04/15 Synthetic Biology and Intellectual Property Rights.

Sites institutionnels

World’s first artificial enzymes created using synthetic biology. MIT NEWS 11/06/13 CIS, Wilson Center receive grant for synthetic biology research. INNOVATEUK - JUILLET 2012 - A synthetic biology roadmap for the UK. Front Microbiol. 2012; 3: 344. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae. Références FOE. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume 2010 (2010) Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Pro. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume 2010 (2010), Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production. One-Third of Americans Back Ban on Synthetic Biology. THE GREEN ECONOMY POST 27/06/11 12 Synthetic Biology Biofuel & Biochemical Companies to Watch. NATURE 23/06/11 Artemisinin: A Synthetic Biology Success Story. BLOG FORBES 23/06/11 Should Synthetic Biology Be Policed? LABSPACES 26/05/11 Biological circuits for synthetic biology. NTI 21/05/10 Synthetic Genome Raises Biosecurity Concerns.

THE ECONOMIST 20/05/10 Synthetic biology - And man made lifeArtificial life, the stuff of dreams and nightmares, has arrived. ISTL - SPRING 2010 - Science and Technology Resources on the InternetSynthetic Biology Resources on the Internet.