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PLOS 14/07/16 Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos. Abstract For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos.

PLOS 14/07/16 Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos

Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. PLOS 14/07/16 Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach. Abstract Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people’s views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos.

PLOS 14/07/16 Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach

The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos’ mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Citation: Meehan CL, Mench JA, Carlstead K, Hogan JN (2016) Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

Introduction. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005656-16 Assessment of the Zoos Directive. It is my understanding that Council Directive 1999/22/EC of 29 March 1999 on the keeping of wild animals in zoos (the Zoos Directive) and its application will be assessed this year as part of the Commission's REFIT programme of the EU's biodiversity policy.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005656-16 Assessment of the Zoos Directive

In 2011, the EU Zoo Inquiry(1), conducted by the Born Free Foundation, found that implementation and enforcement of the Zoos Directive was poor, that zoos were routinely failing to meet the species-specific requirements of the animals and that Member State competent authorities lacked the knowledge and training required to fulfil their responsibilities. Will the Commission, as part of the REFIT programme, consult the Member State competent authorities and ensure that they are competent in the enforcement of the legal requirements and the inspection of zoos?

PLOS 01/05/14 Emerging Infectious Diseases in Free-Ranging Wildlife–Australian Zoo Based Wildlife Hospitals Contribute to National Surveillance. Abstract Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife.

PLOS 01/05/14 Emerging Infectious Diseases in Free-Ranging Wildlife–Australian Zoo Based Wildlife Hospitals Contribute to National Surveillance

Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases. ILRI 31/03/15 All things zoonotic: An ‘Urban Zoo’ research project tracks livestock-based pathogen flows in and around Nairobi. A man herds his goats through Korogocho slum, Nairobi, Kenya (via Flickr/Internews_Nairobi).

ILRI 31/03/15 All things zoonotic: An ‘Urban Zoo’ research project tracks livestock-based pathogen flows in and around Nairobi

From The Economist Explains blog: What zoonotic diseases are, and how to stop them, 24 Mar 2015:‘New human pathogens arise in two ways. They may evolve from old ones, or they may jump to humanity from other species. The second is the more common route. Infections that jump in this way are called zoonotic diseases, or zoonoses. This seems to have been the route taken by Ebola fever, the latest outbreak of which has claimed more than 10,000 lives. Zoonotic diseases fact chart/infographic (via graphs.net, From an earlier report in The Economist, On the Zoonose, 18 Jan 2014:‘Zoonoses—diseases transmitted from animals to people—seem to be becoming more serious. Graphic from the African Population and Health Research Center. Urban Zoo researchers are investigating mechanisms leading to the introduction and subsequent spread of pathogens into urban populations through livestock commodity value chains. DAFF_GOV_AU - MARS 2011 - National Zoo Biosecurity Manual.

BIOSECURITY_GOVT_NZ 19/06/13 Importing Zoo Asian Elephants from Sri Lanka and Australia. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-004958-15 Trade in baby elephants. DEFRA 03/03/15 Zoo inspections report. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 9 (1): 1-5, 2014 OCCUPATIONAL AND ANIMALS SAFETY IN ZOOS: A LEGAL NARRATIVE. UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD - 2013 - A review of the welfare of zoo elephants in Europe. CAPTIVEANIMALS - 2013 - Birds in Zoos in England: An Assessment of Welfare, Conservation and Education in 2013. Animals 2013, 3(4), 1058-1072 Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standard. Animals, Vol. 2, 2012 The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors. BC CENTRE FOR DISEASE CONTROL - MARCH 2011 - Communicable Disease Control Guidelines for Prevention of Zoonotic Diseases from Pe.

J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011 Dec;42(4):641-50. Fish quarantine: current practices in public zoos and aquaria. BIAZA (British & Irish association of Zoos) May 2011 Guidance on Management of Zoonoses in zoos. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 06/03/12 Blood-feeding ecology of mosquitoes in zoos. HSE - 2012 - Managing health and safety in zoos. Date of publication: Series code: Price: Download a free copy This guidance contains practical advice for those responsible for the operation of zoos, such as zoo operators, safety representatives and managers.

HSE - 2012 - Managing health and safety in zoos

It applies to establishments of any size where wild animals are kept for exhibition to the public including aquariums, sanctuaries, bird gardens and safari parks. Specific hazards and risks associated with zoos are covered, as well as common issues such as slips and trips, manual handling and vehicle movements. The guidance contains recommendations on how to ensure effective arrangements for the safety, health and welfare of employees and others who might be affected by zoo work activities (eg volunteers, veterinary surgeons, contractors, the general public etc). Previously published as Web15, this guidance has been revised to take into account changes to the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations. Download a free this. BORN FREE 01/05/12 EU ZOO INQUIRY WELCOMED BY COMMISSION.

1 May 2012 Categories: Homepage News, Zoo Check Campaign News, EU Zoo Inquiry News Following the success of the EU Zoo Inquiry exhibition at the European Parliament last week, an oral question was tabled in response to the overall findings ofthe EU Zoo Inquiry to ask what steps the Commission is taking to ensure a more effective implementation of the EU Zoo Directive.

BORN FREE 01/05/12 EU ZOO INQUIRY WELCOMED BY COMMISSION

ALDE MEP Chris Davies (Liberal Democrats, UK), who tabled the oral question in the Environment Committee, said: "We have many excellent zoos but also hundreds that make no contribution towards the protection of species and where animals are kept in miserable conditions. The problem stems more from ignorance than cruelty. "No one wants to see animals that are suffering. ALDE MEP Bill Newton-Dunn (Liberal Democrats, UK), who hosted the EU Zoo Inquiry Exhibition in the European Parliament, added: “We have been very clear that The EU Zoo Inquiry is the first step towards positive change.