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UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA - 2011 - Thèse en ligne : Effects of dietary melamine and cyanuric acid in young broilers and turkey poults. FSAI_IE - Food legislation - Melamine. Melamine and its structural analogues Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine, CAS No. 108-78-1) is produced as a high volume chemical. It can be present in food as a result of uses in food contact materials, including articles made of melamine-formaldehyde plastics, can coatings, paper and board and adhesives. Melamine may also occur in food as a metabolite and degradation product of cyromazine, which is used as a plant protection product and as a veterinary drug, and potentially as a result of its use as a flame retardant. Depending on the purification process, melamine may contain different levels of the structurally related substances cyanuric acid, ammeline and ammelide. Cyanuric acid residues can also occur in food as a result of use of dichloroisocyanurates as a source of active chlorine in disinfection agents.

EU Legislation Contaminants Framework Regulation: Regulation No. 315/93/EECContaminants Legislation setting maximum levels: Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 National Legislation. MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY 18/01/17 The Economics of a Food Fraud Incident – Case Studies and Examples, Including Melamine in Wheat Gluten. Highlights A single shipment of fraudulent food can result in tens of thousands of dollars in illegal profit.

The economic gain of a food fraud can be calculated but the full economic impact is often incalculable. Factors influencing food fraud opportunities include both macro- and micro-economic influences. Pennies worth of an adulterant-substance ingredient can produce thousands of dollars in profits. Abstract Food Fraud can be an extremely profitable act even considering the capital investment of executing a complex and technologically challenging activity. Keywords Food fraud Economic impact Fraud opportunity Ingredient substitution Risk Enterprise risk management Economically motivated adulteration View full text © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Bfr_bund_de 20/07/18 Determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed by LC-MS/MS. MOLECULES 10/08/20 Release of Melamine and Formaldehyde from Melamine-Formaldehyde Plastic Kitchenware. The release of melamine and formaldehyde from kitchenware made of melamine resins is still a matter of great concern. To investigate the migration and release behavior of the monomers from melamine-based food contact materials into food simulants and food stuffs, cooking spoons were tested under so-called hot plate conditions at 100 °C. Release conditions using the real hot plate conditions with 3% acetic acid were compared with conditions in a conventional migration oven and with a release to deionized water. Furthermore, the kinetics of the release were studied using Arrhenius plots giving an activation energy for the release of melamine of 120 kJ/mol. Finally, a correlation between quality of the resins, specifically the kind of bridges between the monomers, and the release of melamine, was confirmed by CP/MAS 13C-NMR measurements of the melamine kitchenware. ►▼ Show Figures Graphical abstract.

PEERJ 07/05/20 Evaluation of a novel syndromic surveillance system for the detection of the 2007 melamine-related nephrotoxicosis foodborne outbreak in dogs and cats in the United States. ENVIRON. SCI. TECHNOL. 10/06/19 Occurrence of Melamine and Its Derivatives in Breast Milk from the United States and Its Implications for Exposure in Infants.

VETERINARY PATHOLOGY JANV 2010 Au sommaire: Food and Pharmaceuticals: Lessons Learned From Global Contaminations With Melamine/Cyanuric Acid and Diethylene Glycol. Do not look where you fell, but where you slipped. —African proverb Within the last 10 years, there has been increased globalization of drug manufacturing as well as outsourcing of production of constituent drug and food ingredients.1 Although final product manufacturing may be performed under highly regulated guidelines, the raw materials entering the regulated production process may have originated in countries under poorly regulated conditions. Recent incidents of toxicity associated with contaminated raw materials offer lessons about the effects of globalization of drug and food manufacturing on consumer safety.1,6,18 Real-World Examples: Nephrotoxicity Caused by Diethylene Glycol and Melamine/Cyanuric Acid Intoxication with DEG is not a new phenomenon.

In 2008, an estimated 294,000 infants and children in China ingested milk-based formula tainted by melamine. Magnitude of the Problem Question 1: Are We Fully Aware of the Magnitude of the Problem? Lesson 1 Prevention of Outbreaks Lesson 2. Revue Méd. Vét., 2018, 169, 7-9, 152-156 Melamine levels in food products of animal origin in Iran. JOURNAL OF DAIRY & VETERINARY SCIENCES 23/03/17 A Review Paper on Melamine in Milk and Dairy Products. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS 15/10/10 Migration of melamine from can coatings cross-linked with melamine-based resins, into food simulants and foods.

EMERGING HEALTH THREATS JOURNAL Vol 3 (2010) Risks associated with melamine and related triazine contamination of food. AESAN - NOV 2015 - Prospective studies of bisphenol A and melamine in canned drinks. FOOD POLICY - 2011 - The China melamine milk scandal and its implications for food safety regulation. A rapid, acetonitrile-free, HPLC method for determination of melamine in infant formula. ERASMUS LAW REVIEW - 2010 - THE EUROPEAN FOOD IMPORT SAFETY REGIME UNDER A ‘STRESS TEST’: THE MELAMINE CONTAMINATION OF THE GLOB. HEC Paris - Law Department December 1, 2010 Erasmus Law Review, Vol. 3, No. 4, p. 203, 2010 Abstract: Ensuring that European food imports are safe presents special challenges, as production takes place in third countries outside the direct control of the member states.

Yet, contrary to conventional wisdom, besides a few exceptions regarding high-risk products (such as animals and animal products), the regulation of food import safety in the European Union (EU) is not the focus of direct legislative attention. As a result, the safety of food imports in Europe is pursued not through the application of special conditions governing the import of third-country products, which would impose systematic and Herculean checks at the external borders, but rather through the decentralised enforcement by member states’ market surveillance authorities of a harmonised set of product safety regulations: the European food safety acquis.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 14 Accepted Paper Series. SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST 06/08/13 Fonterra has clearly forgotten the lesson from melamine milk scandal. If anyone should have learned the lessons of the 2008 scandal over baby milk formula tainted with melamine, which killed six mainland children and caused 300,000 to fall ill, it is Fonterra, the New Zealand dairy export giant. Fonterra sounded the alarm to the New Zealand government, which alerted Beijing, after its mainland partner, the state-owned Sanlu Group, failed to comply with a request for a full product recall.

The result was one of the darkest chapters of China product safety, involving more than 20 companies. The industrial chemical was introduced in China and trust in Fonterra's product emerged intact. Incredibly, the company has lost it in one stroke in circumstances that are not dissimilar. Fonterra has revealed that a whey product used to make infant formula and sports drinks had been contaminated with bacteria that can cause potentially fatal botulism.

According to New Zealand Prime Minister John Key, tests last year showed problems with three batches of whey. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2013, 19(1), 16-21 Analysis of melamine contamination in meat and dairy pro. BMC - 2014 - Long-term follow-up of nephrotoxicity in rats administered both melamine and cyanuric acid. BioMed Research International Volume 2013 (2013), Bees' Honey Protects the Liver of Male Rats against Melamine Toxicity. Encyclopedia of Bioterrorism Defense, 2nd Edition, 2011 MELAMINE CONTAMINATION. Analyst, 2012, 137, 826 Direct SERS detection of contaminants in a complex mixture: rapid, single step screening for melamine in. FOOD QUALITY NEWS 05/07/12 Codex regulation ‘bolts the door’ on infant milk melamine contamination. The Codex Alimentarius Commission has set new maximum limits for melamine in liquid infant milk in an effort to ‘bolt-up’ regulations and prevent a repeat of the 2008 Chinese scandal caused by the chemical.

Under the agreed regulation, Codex has set a maximum limit of 0.15mg/kg for melamine in liquid infant milk – following in the footsteps of an earlier regulation on melamine levels in powdered infant formula adopted two years ago. In the wake of the 2008 melamine-tainted infant formula scandal in China, Codex adopted a maximum melamine level of 1mg/kg for powdered infant formula. Codex, which is jointly run by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), sets international food safety and quality standards. In many cases these standards are adopted as a basis for national legislation. The melamine regulation is just one of four agreed at the Codex meeting in Rome, which began earlier this week. Bolted the door Maximum limits. Archives of Iranian Medicine, Volume 15, Number 4, April 2012 Liver Involvement in Melamine-associated Nephrolithiasis.

Food Control Volume 26, Issue 2, August 2012, Melamine and other food safety and health scares in China: Comparing households wi. Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine whether household responses to melamine and other recent food safety and health scares in China in recent years differed between households that did or did not have young children (less than six years of age). A consumer survey was conducted in Hohhot, China in September 2009, one year after the melamine contamination of milk was disclosed to the public. Households with young children who were not being breast-fed reported that they had reduced milk consumption by at least 1/3 in the immediate aftermath of the melamine disclosure and 39% reported that they cut out milk consumption altogether. A significantly higher percentage of households with children reported being concerned with the effects of melamine in milk and two communicable diseases: SARS and H1N1 influenza than were those with no children.

Highlights Keywords Milk; Consumer survey; Food safety law; Hohhot; Infant formula Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5: 176-185. 2011 The Cause and Effect Analysis of the Melamine Incident in China. Melamine incident occurred in 2008, China. It has brought many negative consequences in the health of infants and has instigated social unrest in China. An increased incidence of kidney stones and renal failure among infants had been publicly reported in China beginning in early September 2008. This incident has badly affected the reputation of Chinese foods in the international market and specifically has affected the export of dairy products. Thus, it is very important to analyze the causes and effects of melamine incidence in China that would shade some lights on present situation and provides a future course of actions.

The government investigation showed that 22 manufacturers of powdered infant formula were selling melamine-contaminated products. Due to the impact of the melamine incident, the public trust of food containing milk was lost and concern for the food safety has risen. An exploratory survey of different concerned stakeholders was carried out in 2009. 288-294.pdf (Objet application/pdf) Journal of Dairy Science Volume 94, Issue 7, July 2011, Residues of melamine and cyanuric acid in milk and tissues of dairy cows. Received 18 November 2010; accepted 21 March 2011. Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) may be degraded into cyanuric acid and some other compounds by rumen microorganisms.

This study was conducted to assess the transfer of melamine and cyanuric acid in to milk and tissues by dairy cows fed different doses of melamine. Forty mid-lactation dairy cows (157 43 d in milk, 20.8 kg of milk/d) were divided into 4 groups (n 10/group) using a completely randomized design. 99.5%) at 0 (control), 300 [treatment (Trt) 1], 500 (Trt 2), and 1,000 (Trt 3) mg/d per cow, respectively. Mg/L for Trt 1, Trt 2, and Trt 3, respectively, and were highly correlated (R2 0.91) with melamine dosing levels. Key words: melamine, cyanuric acid, dairy cow, milk and tissue. OMS 06/07/10 International experts limit melamine levels in food. STELLENBOSCH UNIVERSITY - MARS 2011 - Thèse en ligne :THE TRANSMISSION OF MELAMINE FROM FEED TO POULTRY PRODUCTS.

VIN 12/10/11 Pet owners receive $12.4 million in melamine case. Like most pet owners affected by the melamine contamination and pet food recall of 2007, Karl Rahder was reimbursed for about half of his claimed expenses under a $24 million class-action court settlement. His cat, Inca, survived, but never regained full vigor. Photo courtesy of Karl Rahder. Owners of animals affected by food contaminated with melamine received slightly more than half of the money in a $24-million fund established to settle legal claims stemming from the largest pet food recall in North America.

The balance of the fund went to lawyers’ fees and expenses, claims administration and public notices. In all, $12,357,277 was paid on 20,229 claims from the United States and Canada, according to information provided by the claims administrator, the accounting firm Heffler, Radetich & Saitta LLP in Philadelphia. A total of $27,793,975.36 in claims was judged eligible for compensation. However, the collective payout was significantly less — amounting to 45 cents on the dollar.

Références USDA

Références Union Européenne.