VIRUSES 20/04/20 Nipah Virus: Past Outbreaks and Future Containment. Viral outbreaks of varying frequencies and severities have caused panic and havoc across the globe throughout history.
Influenza, small pox, measles, and yellow fever reverberated for centuries, causing huge burden for economies. The twenty-first century witnessed the most pathogenic and contagious virus outbreaks of zoonotic origin including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Nipah virus. Nipah is considered one of the world’s deadliest viruses with the heaviest mortality rates in some instances.
It is known to cause encephalitis, with cases of acute respiratory distress turning fatal. Various factors contribute to the onset and spread of the virus. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1 This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
THIS WEEK IN VIROLOGY VIA YOUTUBE 26/05/20 TWiV 618: Nipah virus at 20. The Pharma Innovation Journal 2021; 10(1): 144-146 Review - Nipah virus: An emerging zoonotic disease. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 08/10/20 Widespread Torix Rickettsia in New Zealand amphipods and the use of blocking primers to rescue host COI sequences. 1.Hebert, P.
D. N., Penton, E. H., Burns, J. M., Janzen, D. MOLECULES 27/09/20 New Real-Time PCRs to Differentiate Rickettsia spp. and Rickettsia conorii. Rickettsia species are an important cause of emerging infectious diseases in people and animals, and rickettsiosis is one of the oldest known vector-borne diseases.
Laboratory diagnosis of Rickettsia is complex and time-consuming. This study was aimed at developing two quantitative real-time PCRs targeting ompB and ompA genes for the detection, respectively, of Rickettsia spp. and R. conorii DNA. Primers were designed following an analysis of Rickettsia gene sequences. The assays were optimized using SYBR Green and TaqMan methods and tested for sensitivity and specificity. This study allowed the development of powerful diagnostic methods, able to detect and quantify Rickettsia spp. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1 This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. JOURNAL OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS 30/09/20 A Mathematical Model for Nipah Virus Infection. It has been reported that unprotected contact with the dead bodies of infected individuals is a plausible way of Nipah virus transmission.
An SIRD model is proposed in this paper to investigate the impact of unprotected contact with dead bodies of infected individuals before burial or cremation and their disposal rate on the dynamics of Nipah virus infection. The model is analyzed, and the reproduction number is computed. It is established that the disease-free state is globally asymptotically stable when the reproduction number is less than unity and unstable if it is greater than unity. By using the central manifold theory, we observe that the endemic equilibrium is locally stable near to unity. It is concluded that minimizing unsafe contact with the infected dead body and/or burial or cremation as fast as possible contributes positively. CORNELL_EDU 19/11/20 NIH extends funding of research into deadly Nipah virus.
Nipah virus, which has a 40% to 90% mortality rate in humans, is listed by the World Health Organization as likely to cause future pandemics, and therefore requires “urgent action.”
A Cornell researcher is studying the Paramyxoviridae family – which includes Nipah virus – in an effort to understand the basic mechanisms of transmission and infection, which are necessary steps toward vaccine development and other therapies. The research is possible thanks to a five-year, $2.3 million National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant awarded to Hector Aguilar-Carreno, associate professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, in the College of Veterinary Medicine.
The award is a continuation of a previous five-year NIH grant. Fruit bats are the natural hosts to Nipah virus, with other animals, such as pigs, also susceptible. Pig farmers in Asia have become infected and can then transmit the virus to other people. BIORXIV 12/03/20 A Combined Evidence Approach to Prioritize Nipah Virus Inhibitors. BBC 12/01/21 The other virus that worries Asia (Nipah) FRONT MICROBIOL. 29/07/20 Sequencing the Genome of Indian Flying Fox, Natural Reservoir of Nipah Virus, Using Hybrid Assembly and Conservative Secondary Scaffolding.
Introduction Bats have been reported to be the natural reservoir of several zoonotic viruses that cause severe human diseases, including Marburg, Ebola, Nipah, Hendra, SARS, and MERS viruses (Wang and Anderson, 2019).
Pteropus medius (also known as P. giganteus and commonly called Indian flying fox (Mlikovsky, 2012) is a frugivorous giant bat, widely distributed in Southeast Asia, and shown to host numerous viral species (Anthony et al., 2013), including Nipah virus (Yadav et al., 2019). Nipah virus is a recently emerged zoonotic Paramyxovirus, capturing the attention of both scientific and public health communities due to its high lethality rate, up to 90% in Bangladesh and India epidemics, associated with human-to-human transmission (Mathieu and Horvat, 2015; Arunkumar et al., 2019). J R Soc Interface. 2012 Jan 7;9(66):89-101 Agricultural Intensification, Priming for Persistence and the Emergence of Nipah Virus: A Lethal Bat-Borne Zoonosis.
ABC 26/07/11 Scientists concerned as hendra virus jumps species barrier. MARK COLVIN: No dog has ever been diagnosed with hendra virus before today.
But today Biosecurity Queensland announced that a dog had tested positive for the potentially fatal disease. Researchers on hendra virus are worried and baffled. It's also the first time that hendra virus has been detected in the wild in anything other than flying foxes, horses and humans. NPJ 15/04/19 Rabies-based vaccine induces potent immune responses against Nipah virus. cDNA construction of vaccine vectors We inserted codon-optimized Nipah virus glycoprotein gene G (Bangladesh strain, GenBank: AY988601.1) between the N and P genes of the parental BNSP333 rabies vector using BsiWI and NheI restriction sites(16).
Codon bias optimization for human codon use was carried out by GenScript Inc. The resulting plasmid was designated BNSP333-coNiV-G (NIPARAB), and the correct sequence of the plasmid was confirmed by sequencing using primers targeting the region between the N and P genes. Recovery of recombinant vectors X-tremeGENE 9 transfection reagent (Roche Diagnostics) in Opti-MEM was used to transfect full-length viral cDNA clones along with support plasmids bearing RABV N, P, G, and L genes under the control of a T7 promoter and a plasmid expressing T7 RNA polymerase into BSR cells on 6-well plates as described previously.31 Successful recovery was determined by a rabies focus-forming assay. VOX SANGUINIS 18/12/19 Inactivation of three emerging viruses–severe acuterespiratory syndrome coronavirus, Crimean–Congohaemorrhagic fever virus and Nipah virus–in plateletconcentrates by ultraviolet C light and in plasma bymethylene blue plus visible li.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine Volume 18, June 2019, Nano-based approach to combat emerging viral (NIPAH virus) infection. Outline AbstractGraphical AbstractKey wordsCellular and molecular changes in NiV infectionTherapeutics against NiVNano-based antiviral therapyPossible nano-based approach for NiV diagnosisPossible nano-based approach for NiV inhibitionConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferences Tables (3) Table 1Table 2Table 3 Abstract Emergence of new virus and their heterogeneity are growing at an alarming rate.
Journal of Infection and Public Health Volume 12, Issue 5, September–October 2019, Nipah virus: A review on epidemiological characteristics and outbreaks to inform public health decision making. D.D.
Kulkarni, C. Tosh, G. Venkatesh, D.S. JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 03/01/20 A Hopkins scientist is studying the ways the deadly Nipah virus affects carrier fruit bats to better understand how it spreads to humans. By Carrie Arnold /Published Jan 3 Long before dawn one August morning, Emily Gurley and her team set out for the roost site. The night before, a research team in Faridpur, Bangladesh, had set up nets after the fruit bats flew off to forage. The nets caught about a dozen bats returning to the roost; now, Gurley and her colleagues gathered to collect samples from them. It was all part of a new endeavor to get one step ahead of a virus that can kill up to 90% of those infected with a terrifying combination of encephalitis and pneumonia. INFECTION ECOLOGY & EPIDEMIOLOGY 04/05/16 The equine Hendra virus vaccine remains a highly effective preventative measure against infection in horses and humans: ‘The imperative to develop a human vaccine for the Hendra virus in Australia’
To the Editor In their commentary article, ‘The imperative to develop a human vaccine for the Hendra virus in Australia’, Zahoor and Mudie (1 Zahoor BA, Mudie LI. HOPKINS BLOOMBERG PUBLIC HEALTH MAGAZINE - 2019 - Tracking the Nipah Virus. Long before dawn one August morning, Emily Gurley and her team set out for the roost site. The night before, a research team in Faridpur, Bangladesh, had set up nets after the fruit bats flew off to forage. The nets caught about a dozen bats returning to the roost; now, Gurley and her colleagues gathered to collect samples from them. It was all part of a new endeavor to get one step ahead of a virus that can kill up to 90% of those infected with a terrifying combination of encephalitis and pneumonia. Despite the best tricks science had up its sleeve, the world’s epidemiologists always remained one step behind. Scientists have been playing catch-up since they detected the first Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia in 1998.
Now, thanks to a $10 million grant from DARPA that seeks to keep U.S. soldiers safe from global infectious threats, Gurley has a chance to get ahead of Nipah. FRONT. MICROBIOL. 11/03/19 Rapid and Specific Detection of All Known Nipah virus Strains’ Sequences With Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification. Introduction Nipah virus (NiV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Henipavirus, which contains another four species: Hendra virus (HeV), Cedar virus, Mojiang virus, and Kumasi virus (McLinton et al., 2017). NiV is classified as a Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) agent because of its high pathogenicity and mortality rate, which ranges from 40 to 100% (SEARO, 2014), and causes fatal human encephalitis and respiratory disease when it spills over from its bat reservoir – Pteropod fruit bats (flying foxes).
CNA ASIA via YOUTUBE - DEC 2019 - Health experts warn Nipah virus has "serious epidemic potential" PLOS 19/06/18 Development of a novel real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the quantitative detection of Nipah virus replicative viral RNA. Abstract Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that can result in severe pulmonary disease and fatal encephalitis in humans and is responsible for outbreaks in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, India and possibly the Philippines.
NiV has a negative-sense RNA genome that contains six genes and serves as a template for production of viral mRNA transcripts. NiV mRNA transcripts are subsequently translated into viral proteins. Traditionally, NiV quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays have relied on using primer sets that amplify a target (N that encodes the nucleocapsid) within the coding region of the viral gene that also amplifies viral mRNA. Here we describe a novel one-step qRT-PCR assay targeting the intergenic region separating the viral F and G proteins, thereby eliminating amplification of the viral mRNA.
VETERINARY QUARTERLY 22/04/19 Nipah virus: epidemiology, pathology, immunobiology and advances in diagnosis, vaccine designing and control strategies - a comprehensive review. FAO - AOUT 2018 - Nipah virus Frequently asked questions. Updated August 2018 What is Nipah and where is it found? Nipah is a zoonotic disease, meaning it is transmitted from animals to humans. The disease is caused by a virus closely related to Hendra virus, both of which are members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Nipah was named after the village in Malaysia where pig farmers first became ill with the disease, and other human outbreaks have been reported in Singapore, Bangladesh and India. Fruit bats of the Pteropus genus, also known as flying foxes, are the natural hosts for Nipah virus. CEPI_NET 07/03/19 Nipah - The Next Global Pandemic?
Last year, Stanford epidemiologist and Nipah expert Stephen Luby, a scientist who forms part of the team working on our University of Tokyo partnership to develop a Nipah vaccine, spoke to the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment about the risks posed by the 2018 Nipah virus outbreak and potential interventions to halt its spread: Vaccine development for Nipah virus infection in pigs. 1Pirbright Institute (BBSRC), United Kingdom 2University of Surrey, United Kingdom. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 30/05/18 Mapping Disease Transmission Risk of Nipah Virus in South and Southeast Asia. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Dec;64(6):1898-1911. Risk Mitigation of Emerging Zoonoses: Hendra Virus and Non-Vaccinating Horse Owners.
SCIENCEPG 21/07/18 Nipah Virus Infection, a High Priority Disease: History, Facts, Transmission, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment. Nipah Virus Infection, a High Priority Disease: History, Facts, Transmission, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 38-42 Received: May 27, 2018; Accepted: Jun. 25, 2018; Published: Jul. 21, 2018 Views 559 Downloads 35. CDC 30/03/18 Frequently Asked Questions: Nipah Virus. PLOS 30/04/18 Indirect ELISA based on Hendra and Nipah virus proteins for the detection of henipavirus specific antibodies in pigs. Abstract Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) belong to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Henipavirus infections were first reported in the 1990’s causing severe and often fatal outbreaks in domestic animals and humans in Southeast Asia and Australia.
NiV infections were observed in humans in Bangladesh, India and in the first outbreak in Malaysia, where pigs were also infected. HeV infections occurred in horses in the North-Eastern regions of Australia, with singular transmission events to humans. CSIRO 16/07/13 Boosting the frontline fight against the Hendra virus. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 30/05/18 Mapping Disease Transmission Risk of Nipah Virus in South and Southeast Asia. Since 1998, Nipah virus (NiV) (genus: Henipavirus; family: Paramyxoviridae), an often-fatal and highly virulent zoonotic pathogen, has caused sporadic outbreak events. Fruit bats from the genus Pteropus are the wildlife reservoirs and have a broad distribution throughout South and Southeast Asia, and East Africa. Understanding the disease biogeography of NiV is critical to comprehending the potential geographic distribution of this dangerous zoonosis. This study implemented the R packages ENMeval and BIOMOD2 as a means of modeling regional disease transmission risk and additionally measured niche similarity between the reservoir Pteropus and the ecological characteristics of outbreak localities with the Schoener’s D index and I statistic.
REUTERS 28/05/18 India steps up hunt for origin of mysterious brain-damaging virus. Stanford Medicine VIA YOUTUBE 09/11/12 Epidemiology and Prevention of Human Nipah Virus Infection. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics 16/06/16 Mathematical Analysis of Nipah Virus Infections Using Optimal Control Theory. Current Opinion in Virology Volume 22, February 2017, Nipah virus: transmission of a zoonotic paramyxovirus. <div pearltreesdevid="PTD139" role="alert" class="alert-message-container"><div pearltreesdevid="PTD140" aria-hidden="true" class="alert-message-body"><span pearltreesdevid="PTD141" style="display: inline-block;" class="Icon IconAlert"><svg pearltreesDevId="PTD142" style="width: 100%; height: 100%;" width="24" height="24" focusable="false" tabindex="-1" fill="currentColor"><path pearltreesDevId="PTD143" fill="#f80" d="M11.84 4.63c-.77.05-1.42.6-1.74 1.27-1.95 3.38-3.9 6.75-5.85 10.13-.48.83-.24 1.99.53 126.96.36.199 1.66.36 2.5.41 3.63 0 7.27.01 10.9-.01 1.13-.07 2.04-1.28 1.76-2.39-.1-.58-.56-1.02-.81-1.55-1.85-3.21-3.69-6.43-5.55-9.64-.42-.52-1.06-.83-1.74-.79z"></path><path pearltreesDevId="PTD144" d="M11 8h2v5h-2zM11 14h2v2h-2z"></path></svg></span><!
MICROBE POST 23/08/16 On the Horizon: Nipah Virus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg (2015) 109 (9): 563-571. Mapping the risk of Nipah virus spillover into human populations in South and Southeast Asia. Advances in Biology Volume 2015 (2015) Serological Evidence of Henipavirus among Horses and Pigs in Zaria and Environs in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016 Aug;63(5):374-85. Intangible and Economic Impacts of Hendra Virus Prevention Strategies.
Curr Opin Virol. 2016 Feb;16:120-5. Hendra virus ecology and transmission. J Med Virol. 2016 Mar;88(3):380-8. Origin and evolution of Nipah virus. Vaccine Volume 34, Issue 26, 3 June 2016, Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Nipah virus. ABC 03/06/16 Black and spectacled flying foxes are main Hendra virus carriers, research shows. HORSETALK 01/08/16 New field test for Hendra virus in horses could deliver result in minutes. QUEENSLAND GOVERNMENT - 2013 - Guidelines for veterinarians handling potential Hendra virus infection in horses. ABC 03/06/16 Black and spectacled flying foxes are main Hendra virus carriers, research shows. VIROLOGY JOURNAL 27/11/14 Detailed morphological characterisation of Hendra virus infection of different cell types using super-resolution and conventional imaging. Trop Med Surg - 2013 - Nipah virus.
STEPS CENTRE - 2014 - Towards one health? Evolution of international collaboration networks on Nipah virus research from 1999 to 2011. CDC EID - Volume 20, Number 6—June 2014 Au sommaire: Novel Henipa-like Virus, Mojiang Paramyxovirus, in Rats, China, 2012. CDC EID - FEV 2015 - Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014. CDC EID - MARS 2014 – Au sommaire: Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health. NSW GOVERNMENT - PRIMARY INDUSTRIES AGRICULTURE - JUILLET 2011 - Hendra virus - Frequently Asked Questions. QUEENSLAND GOVERNMENT 12/09/12 Frequently asked questions about dogs and Hendra virus.
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (Queensland - Australie) - 2015 - Hendra virus – information for veterinarians. QUEENSLAND GOVERNMENT 01/04/15 Everyday Queenslanders commit to fight against Hendra. ANIMAL HEALTH AUSTRALIA 01/04/15 Improved hendra virus vaccine information. Ahead of Print -Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014 - Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015. Detailed morphological characterisation of Hendra virus infection of different cell types using super-resolution and conventional imaging.
STEPS CENTRE - 2014 - Towards one health? Evolution of international collaboration networks on Nipah virus research from 1999 to 2011. CDC EID - FEV 2015 - Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014. GOVERNMENT OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA - BIOSECURITY SA - JUILLET 2011 - Understanding Hendra virus For equine veterinarians. JOURNAL OF INFECTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – AVRIL 2013 - Pathogenesis of Hendra and Nipah virus infection in humans. DAFF_QLD_GOV_AU - MAI 2013 - Hendra virus Information for horse owners, handlers, competitors and event organisers.
Pathogens 2013, 2(2), 264-287; Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models. COLLEGE DE FRANCE 10/06/13 Présentation : Understanding all Steps of Nipah Virus Transmission. BIOSECURITY QUEENSLAND - Perspective on Hendra virus. FREE PATENTS ONLINE 13/06/13 Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against Hendra and Nipah Viruses.
Biosecurity Queensland - 2012 - Présentation : Hendra virus responses. UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY - 2012 - A longitudinal cohort evaluate risk (HHALTER) NSW GOVERNMENT - PRIMARY INDUSTRIES AGRICULTURE - AOUT 2011 - $6m for cross border Hendra virus research. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012 Apr 3. Ecological Aspects of Hendra Virus. Virus Research Volume 162, Issues 1–2, December 2011, A review of Nipah and Hendra viruses with an historical aside. PNAS 30/08/12 Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: The past, present, and future drivers of Nipah vi.
Current Opinion in Virology Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2012, Pages 242–247 Hendra and Nipah viruses: why are they so deadly? Ecological Aspects of Hendra Virus. [Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012. Pathology Research International Volume 2011 (2011), Pathology of Acute Henipavirus Infection in Humans and Animals.
ROYAL SOCIETY 11/05/11 Urban habituation, ecological connectivity and epidemic dampening: the emergence of Hendra virus from fly. Actualités CDC. Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011 Présentation: Nipah. JITMM-1-12-2010-C7-Christopher-Morrissey. Perkins. Dog infected with hendra virus ABC Sydney - Explore by Topic - Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Hendra Virus, not just a Queensland problem. Hendra-alert-for-the-horse-industry. Biosecurity-bulletin-update-7-July-2011. NPR 25/02/17 A Taste For Pork Helped A Deadly Virus Jump To Humans.