PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-004545/2019 Large-scale deforestation in Croatia. Forest Policy and Economics Volume 108, November 2019, Reducing emissions from land use change in Indonesia: An overview. 1.
Introduction The goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change cannot be achieved without a significant contribution from forests (Griscom et al., 2017; Rockström et al., 2017). Reductions of emissions from land use, particularly forests, account for a quarter of the reductions pledged by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) (Grassi et al., 2017). Reducing emissions from deforestation as a possible global contribution to limiting climate change was first discussed in 2005 at the Montreal Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UNFCCC.
Forest Policy and Economics Volume 108, November 2019, The role of fiscal instruments in encouraging the private sector and smallholders to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: Evidence from Indonesia. 1.
Introduction: climate change, forest-based emissions, and Indonesian fiscal policy. Forest Policy and Economics Volume 108, November 2019, Developing community-based forest ecosystem service management to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. 1.
Introduction Indonesia's emission reduction program through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) has now moved from the readiness to the implementation phase. FORESTS 02/12/19 Determining a Carbon Reference Level for a High-Forest-Low-Deforestation Country. Research Highlights: A transparent approach to developing a forest reference emissions level (FREL) adjusted to future local developments in Southern Cameroon is demonstrated.
Background and Objectives: Countries with low historical deforestation can adjust their forest reference (emission) level (FREL/FRL) upwards for REDD+ to account for likely future developments. Many countries, however, find it difficult to establish a credible adjusted reference level. This article demonstrates the establishment of a FREL for southern Cameroon adjusted to societal megatrends of strong population—and economic growth combined with rapid urbanization. It demonstrates what can be done with available information and data, but most importantly outlines pathways to further improve the quality of future FREL/FRL’s in light of possibly accessing performance-based payments.
PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002888-19 Regulatory measures to combat deforestation. THE SMITHSONIAN 08/06/16 Did Deforestation Contribute to Zika’s Spread? For decades, when scientists and researchers focused on pandemics, they looked for vaccines and drugs.
The mystery of what caused zoonotic pathogens to jump from animals to humans drew little attention. "The idea was that something fundamental is going on in this era that is driving all these pandemics," says Peter Daszak, who has studied wildlife and human disease for more than two decades, "but no one was bringing the whole thing together. " Now, a series of studies, built upon research over the past two decades, provides increasing evidence that the loss of forest creates the conditions for a wide range of deadly diseases to jump from animals to humans. "The fundamental change is what we’re doing to the planet," he says. "We’re not only driving global pollution, climate change and all the rest, but we’re driving the emergence and spread of all these new pathogens. " "Land use change is coming up as a significant driver of disease events, particularly from wildlife," he says.
THE SCIENTIST 29/01/19 Deforestation Tied to Changes in Disease Dynamics. Rev. econ. contemp. vol.22 no.2 Rio de Janeiro 2018 MR. KEYNES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: TROPICAL DEFORESTATION AND THE CONCEPT OF USER COST. Tropical deforestation is increasingly regarded as one of the most important environmental problems in developing countries.
Nevertheless, this subject has remained a 'no go zone' for the heterodox economics literature. Almost all of the environmental economics literature dealing with tropical deforestation has a strong neoclassical background, implying very unrealistic assumptions in the analysis. For example, well defined land property rights are considered in order to allow optimal control modeling (for example, HARTWICK, 1992), even though this is the exception, rather than the rule, in the context of tropical developing countries. Because of that, the speculative behavior that characterizes land accumulation in the agricultural frontier areas cannot be incorporated in the analysis. The objective of this paper is to fulfill this gap, by presenting a model of deforestation as a response to land accumulation motivated by land price speculation. REMOTE SENSING 29/11/18 Deforestation and Forest Degradation Due to Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: A 34-Year Perspective.
While deforestation rates decline globally they are rising in the Western Amazon.
Artisanal-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a large cause of this deforestation and brings with it extensive environmental, social, governance, and public health impacts, including large carbon emissions and mercury pollution. Underlying ASGM is a broad network of factors that influence its growth, distribution, and practices such as poverty, flows of legal and illegal capital, conflicting governance, and global economic trends. Despite its central role in land use and land cover change in the Western Amazon and the severity of its social and environmental impacts, it is relatively poorly studied. While ASGM in Southeastern Peru has been quantified previously, doing so is difficult due to the heterogeneous nature of the resulting landscape. PARASITES & VECOTRS 06/06/16 Life-table studies revealed significant effects of deforestation on the development and survivorship of Anopheles minimus larvae.
NATURE 12/07/18 Deforestation ticks up in Brazil's savannah - The Cerrado is the most threatened biome in Brazil, environmentalists proclaim. Deforestation in the Cerrado, a vast wooded savannah bordering the southern and eastern Brazilian Amazon, increased by 9% in 2017 compared to 2016, according to satellite data released last month by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) in São José dos Campos.
In total, an estimated 7,408 square kilometres of land were cleared to make way for cattle pasture and croplands. Although the rate of deforestation in the Cerrado remains well below the annual levels documented from 2013 to 2015, scientists and environmentalists nonetheless warn that the savannah remains the most threatened biome in Brazil today. By comparison, the INPE registered 6,947 km2 of deforestation in the Amazon in 2017, a drop of 12% compared to the previous year (see 'Cerrado Still Threatened'). A number of factors are behind the current deforestation trends, including weaker environmental rules in the Cerrado than in the Amazon. NATURE 03/10/18 Combined impacts of deforestation and wildlife trade on tropical biodiversity are severely underestimated.
Our study highlights the importance of considering the impacts of major conservation threats in combination: recent habitat loss and exploitation combine to drive dramatic extinction risks to the forest specialist species of Sundaland.
Without urgent policy intervention to curb deforestation and slow the quantities of birds entering the cagebird trade, many species are likely to be lost. Failing to account for these combined threats can lead to a major underestimation of threats in Red List assessments. Our analysis suggests that exploitation for wildlife trade has caused dramatic declines in many species within the region and underscores the critical role that effectively guarded PAs could play as reservoirs of these species.
It remains poorly unknown, however, whether PAs are effective at reducing bird exploitation on the ground and future research should point in this direction. Several factors suggest the impacts of exploitation will continue, including within PAs. MONGABAY 01/04/19 Consequences of Deforestation. Rainforests around the world still continue to fall.
Does it really make a difference? Why should anyone care if some plants, animals, mushrooms, and microorganisms perish? Rainforests are often hot and humid, difficult to reach, insect-ridden, and have elusive wildlife. Actually the concern should not be about losing a few plants and animals; mankind stands to lose much more. MALAYSIA J PATHOL - 2002 - Anthropogenic deforestation, El Niiio and the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia.
LAND 29/01/19 Deforestation and Forest Degradation as an Environmental Behavior: Unpacking Realities Shaping Community Actions. Deforestation and forest degradation (D&D) in the tropics have continued unabated and are posing serious threats to forests and the livelihoods of those who depend on forests and forest resources. Smallholder farmers are often implicated in scientific literature and policy documents as important agents of D&D. However, there is scanty information on why smallholders exploit forests and what the key drivers are. We employed behavioral sciences approaches that capture contextual factors, attitudinal factors, and routine practices that shape decisions by smallholder farmers.
JOURNAL OF GLOBAL HEALTH 01/11/15 Impacts of Deforestation on Vector-borne Disease Incidence. Sharon Chen Allison Gottwalt Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 29/04/19 Deforestation Increases the Risk of Scrub Typhus in Korea. Background: Scrub typhus is an important public health issue in Korea. Risk factors for scrub typhus include both individual-level factors and environmental drivers, and some are related to the increased density of vector mites and rodents, the natural hosts of the mites. FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 12/10/17 Cannabis, an emerging agricultural crop, leads to deforestation and fragmentation (concerne la Californie) FRONT. MICROBIOL. 23/07/18 New Biological Insights Into How Deforestation in Amazonia Affects Soil Microbial Communities Using Metagenomics and Metagenome-Assembled Genomes.
Introduction The Amazon Basin contains the largest continuous tropical rainforest on the planet (Laurance et al., 2001) and is home to unparalleled levels of plant and animal diversity (Da Silva et al., 2005). Rainforests in this region are under threat from human activities, with the largest single threat being conversion to agriculture (Soares-Filho et al., 2006). Several studies have illustrated that human activities in the tropics such as land use change have adverse effects on macro-organismal biodiversity (Dale et al., 1994; McKinney and Lockwood, 1999; Sala et al., 2000), and more recently it became apparent that belowground microbial communities are altered as well (Rodrigues et al., 2013; Paula et al., 2014; Ranjan et al., 2015; Meyer et al., 2017).
Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences organize bacterial and archaeal life into more than 60 phyla. Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 702. Bats, Coronaviruses, and Deforestation: Toward the Emergence of Novel Infectious Diseases? Forest Policy and Economics Volume 90, May 2018, Deforestation and the Paris climate agreement: An assessment of REDD + in the national climate action plans. [HTML][HTML] Deforestation and the Paris climate agreement: An assessment of REDD+ in the national climate action plans J Hein, A Guarin, E Frommé, P Pauw - Forest Policy and Economics, 2018 - Elsevier More than ten years after REDD+(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) entered the UN climate negotiations, its current state and future direction are a matter of contention. This paper analyses 162 INDCs (Intended National Determined Contributions), or climate action plans, to assess whether and how countries plan to use REDD+ in their implementation the Paris Agreement.
Our analysis suggests that REDD+ continues to have political traction. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS 09/05/17 Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers. ENVIRONEMNTAL RESEARCH LETTERS 20/12/17 Cost-effectiveness of reducing emissions from tropical deforestation, 2016–2050.
CEE-MworkingPaper 2019-09 (INRA/CNRS/SUPAGRO MONTPELLIER) - 2019 - Do forest-management plans and FSC certification reduce deforestation in the Congo basin? Abstract : To allow for the production of timber while preserving conservation values, forestry regulations in the Congo Basin have made Forest Management Plans (FMPs) mandatory in logging concessions. Basic and Applied Ecology Volume 26, February 2018, Deforestation and vector-borne disease: Forest conversion favors important mosquito vectors of human pathogens.