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Induction heating : oddlysatisfying. ELI5: What is the difference between laser engraving and laser cleaning? I read an article on this sub that said you can use lasers to restore just about any type of material. How doesn't it burn everything up or damage the piece? : LaserCleaningPorn. Laser Cleaning Porn. Laser Cleaning: HIGH POWER 1000W! Ax from Viking era, before and after conservation 10th–11th century [566x674] : ArtefactPorn. Sıcak cisimler neden kırmızıdır? Sıcaklığı mutlak sıfır noktasının (0 Kelvin) üzerinde olan her cisim ışır. Isınan cisimlerin ışımasının nedeni, atomların ya da moleküllerin termal titreşim enerjilerinin bir kısmını foton olarak salmasıdır. Demir bir çubuk yüksek sıcaklıklara ısıtılırsa önce kırmızı daha sonra beyaz renkte parlar. Isı enerjisinin ışık enerjisine dönüştüğü bu olay, akkor hale gelmek olarak tanımlanabilir. Sıcaklığın yükselmesi ile cisimlerin ışıma renginin değişmesinin nedeni, sıcaklığa bağlı olarak ışıma miktarının belirli bir dalga boyu aralığında maksimum olmasıdır.

A 2500-years-old sword was discovered in China in untarnished condition. Two of the same type of metals will bond together in space? : askscience. Solar panels have gotten thinner than a human hair. Soon they’ll be everywhere. One of the reasons I think solar photovoltaic power is going to take over the world is that it is scalable in a way no other power source can be. It can be used to build multi-hundred-megawatt power plants, or it can be scaled down. Way down. How far down? Try less than the width of a human hair. Solar cells are getting ridonkulously small South Korean scientists have created solar PV cells that are 1 micrometer thick, hundreds of times thinner than most PV and half again as thin as other kinds of thin-film PV.

(The research is in a paper just published in Applied Physics Letters.) The cells are made with gallium arsenide as the semiconductor, "cold welded" directly onto a metal substrate, with no adhesive to make them thicker. (Applied Physics Letters) With cells this thin, solar PV can be integrated in all sorts of "wearables" — clothes, glasses, hats, or backpacks with solar cells integrated, continuously feeding power to our portable electronics. (Dennis Schroeder/NREL) Se connecter à Facebook. Welding a Saxon Sword. Sewage -- yes, poop -- could be a source of valuable metals and critical elements. DENVER, March 23, 2015 -- Poop could be a goldmine -- literally. Surprisingly, treated solid waste contains gold, silver and other metals, as well as rare elements such as palladium and vanadium that are used in electronics and alloys. Now researchers are looking at identifying the metals that are getting flushed and how they can be recovered.

This could decrease the need for mining and reduce the unwanted release of metals into the environment. A talk about their recent work will be one of nearly 11,000 presentations here at the 249th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), the world's largest scientific society, taking place here through Thursday. "If you can get rid of some of the nuisance metals that currently limit how much of these biosolids we can use on fields and forests, and at the same time recover valuable metals and other elements, that's a win-win," says Kathleen Smith, Ph.D. The researchers acknowledge funding from the U.S. Title Abstract. Feces to fortune: US sewage may contain billions in precious metals — RT America. ELI5: Why does steel need to be recovered from ships sunk before the first atomic test to be radiation-free? Isn't all iron ore underground, and therefore shielded from atmospheric radiation? : explainlikeimfive.

The Trinity explosion 0.016 seconds after detonation, 1945. The Trinity explosion, 16 ms after detonation. The viewed hemisphere’s highest point in this image is about 200 metres (660 ft) high. On July 16, 1945, the United States became the first country to successfully detonate an atomic weapon, signalling the beginning of a new era in warfare and in politics. In the early 1940s, the U.S. government authorized a top-secret program of nuclear testing and development, codenamed “The Manhattan Project”. Its goal was the development of the world’s first atomic bomb. Much of the research and development for the project occurred at a facility built in Los Alamos, New Mexico.

In July 1945, Los Alamos scientists successfully exploded the first atomic bomb at the Trinity test site, located in nearby Alamogordo. The code name “Trinity” was assigned by J. The evolution of the Trinity fireball over the first 9 seconds, with the Empire State Building for scale. No one was completely sure what would happen when Gadget went off. Trinity crater. Related. Materials Science and Engineering Information | AZoM. FAQ: What are the microstructural constituents Austenite, Martensite, Bainite, Pearlite and Ferrite?

Frequently Asked Questions Austenite and ferrite Austenite was originally used to describe an iron-carbon alloy, in which the iron was in the face-centred-cubic (gamma-iron) form. It is now a term used for all iron alloys with a basis of gamma-iron. Austenite in iron-carbon alloys is generally only evident above 723°C, and below 1500°C, depending on carbon content. However, it can be retained to room temperature by alloy additions such as nickel or manganese. Similarly, ferrite was a term originally used for iron-carbon alloys, in which the iron was in the body-centred cubic (alpha- or delta-iron) morphology, but is now used for the constituent in iron alloys, which contains iron in the alpha- or delta-iron form.

Alpha ferrite forms by the slow cooling of austenite, with the associated rejection of carbon by diffusion. When iron carbon alloys transform from austenite on cooling, the solubility limit of carbon in ferrite is commonly exceeded. Pearlite Martensite Bainite References. MATTER: Who we are. MATTER was set up as a non-profit consortium of UK materials science departments in 1993 to develop and help integrate computer-based learning (CBL) materials into mainstream teaching. Led by the University of Liverpool, MATTER was originally one of over 70 different projects funded by the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP). This phase of the project resulted in the publication in 1996 of the award-winning Materials Science on CD-ROM, with a second version being released in 1998.

This has now become the leading software resource of its type, and is in use in universities throughout the world. In 1997, Materials Science on CD-ROM was unanimously voted by public jury as winner of the Educational Video/ CD-ROM/CDi competition at EUROMAT '97, held in Maastricht, Netherlands. More recently, our activities have expanded to include the development of science-based software resources for schools, industry and other science disciplines in universities. Links. Raw materials. Raw materials. POSCO ASSAN: KAYNAKLAR SINIRLI, YARATICILIK SONSUZDUR. Dislokasyonlar. Yazar: Fatih Kara | Tarih: Aralık 8, 2015 | 536 defa okundu | Yazdır Dislokasyonlar hatasız bir kafesteki çizgi hatalarıdır. Vida ve kenar dislokasyonu olmak üzere iki tip dislokasyon vardır. Vida dislokasyonu, hatasız kristali yarısına kadar kesmekle, sonra kristali bir atom aralığı kadar eğmekle gösterilebilir.

Eğer kristalin eğildiği her doğrultuda, bir atom aralıklı eşitlikte hareket ettiği eksen etrafında bir tür dönülerek kristalografik düzlem takip edilirse, başlangıç noktasından bir atom aralığı aşağıda bitirilir. Bir kenar dislokasyonu, hatasız kristali yarısına kadar dilimleyerek, kristali ikiye ayırarak ve kesimi fazla bir atom düzlemi ile kısmen doldurarak gösterilebilir. Hatasız kristalin kesilmesi ve bir atom aralığı kadar kayması Kırılma boyunca oluşan çizgi bir vida dislokasyonudur. Şekil de Hatasız kristalin kesilmesi ve fazla bir atom düzleminin araya sokulması. Dislokasyon hareketi ile şekil değişimini sağlayan işlem kayma olarak adlandırılır. Çeliklerin Isıl İşlemi | Metalurji ve Malzeme Kulübü. Çelik, demir ve karbonun alaşımı olarak tanımlanır. Karbon oranındaki az miktarda değişim (Örneğin %0.2’den %0.8’e kadar), çeliğin ısıtıldığı sıcaklıktan soğutulması ile elde edilen özelliklerin büyük miktarda değişimine yol açar.

Hızlı soğutma veya sulama, çeliği kırılgan yapar. Yavaş soğutma ve tavlama çeliği yumuşak ve sünek yapar. Bu iki durum arasındaki özellikler, sertleştirilmiş çeliğin menevişlenmesi ile elde edilir. Bu özellikler çeliğin içindeki elementlerin dağılımı, boyutu, şekli ve cinsi ile ilgilidir. Bütün çeliklerin ısıl işleminde esas olan, çelikleri belli bir sıcaklığa ısıtıp bu sıcaklıkta belli bir süre tutup önceden belirlenmiş soğutma hızı ile soğutmaktır. 1) Ürünü şekillendirmek 2) Parçaların uygun kullanım özelliklerini sağlamak. Isıl işlem yöntemlerini üç ana başlık altında toplayabiliriz.

Tavlama (Şekilde tavlama yöntemleri ve uygulama sıcaklıkları şematik olarak gösterilmektedir.) Normalizasyon tavlaması şu amaçları gerçekleştirmek için yapılır: Sertleştirme. Nehir Çatal Kaşık Bıçak Takımları, Çay Setleri, Çeyiz Setleri | Doğru Zannedilen Yanlışlar. Please Select Your Language ∨ Çeliğin manyetik (mıknatıs özelliği) olması veya olmaması bir kalite ölçüsü değildir. Paslanma mukavemeti en yüksek olan çeliklerde bile manyetik olma özelliği mevcuttur. Örneğin; 18/10 Cr-Ni yani 304 kalite Paslanmaz Çelik, hammadde olarak üretilirken manyetik değildir, fakat mamule çevrilirken gördüğü ısıl işlem veya şekillendirme yöntemleri ile (içindeki molekül yapısı değiştiğinden) manyetiklik özelliği kazanabilir veya başka çeliklerde bunun tam tersi de olabilir.

Bıçak üretimi için kullanılan Paslanmaz Çelik ile Çatal-Kaşık veya Tencere üretiminde kullanılan çelikler kimyasal olarak birbirlerinden farklıdır. Iron pillar of Delhi. The Iron Pillar located in Delhi, India, is a 7 m (23 ft) column in the Qutb complex, notable for the rust-resistant composition of the metals used in its construction. The pillar has attracted the attention of archaeologists and materials scientists and has been called "a testament to the skill of ancient Indian blacksmiths" because of its high resistance to corrosion.[1] The corrosion resistance results from an even layer of crystalline iron hydrogen phosphate forming on the high phosphorus content iron, which serves to protect it from the effects of the local Delhi climate.[2] The pillar weighs over 6,000 kg, and is thought to have originally been erected in what is now Udayagiri by one of the Gupta monarchs in approximately 402 CE, though the precise date and location are a matter of dispute.[3] It was transported to its current location in 1233 CE.[4] Description The Iron pillar stands within the courtyard of Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque Original location R.

Inscriptions Scientific analysis. Roadmap to Engineering in Canada. WOOTZ STEEL: AN ADVANCED MATERIAL OF THE ANCIENT WORLD. WOOTZ STEEL: AN ADVANCED MATERIAL OF THE ANCIENT WORLDS. Srinivasan and S. Ranganathan Department of Metallurgy Indian Institute of Science Bangalore Abstract The development of ancient Indian wootz steel is reviewed. Wootz is the anglicized version of ukku in the languages of the states of Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh, a term denoting steel. Literary accounts suggest that the steel from the southern part of the Indian subcontinent was exported to Europe, China, the Arab world and the Middle East. Though an ancient material, wootz steel also fulfills the description of an advanced material, since it is an ultra-high carbon steel exhibiting properties such as superplasticity and high impact hardness and held sway over a millennium in three continents- a feat unlikely to be surpassed by advanced materials of the current era.

Wootz, High-carbon Steel, South India, Superplasticity, Crucibles, Analyses 1. India has been reputed for its iron and steel since ancient times. 2. Figure 1. 3. 4. 5. The Key Role of Impurities in Ancient Damascus Steel Blades. Archaeotechnology J.D. Verhoeven, A.H. Pendray, and W.E. Dauksch The art of producing the famous 16-18th century Damascus steel blades found in many museums was lost long ago. Recently, however, research has established strong evidence supporting the theory that the distinct surface patterns on these blades result from a carbide-banding phenomenon produced by the microsegregation of minor amounts of carbide-forming elements present in the wootz ingots from which the blades were forged.

Further, it is likely that wootz Damascus blades with damascene patterns may have been produced only from wootz ingots supplied from those regions of India having appropriate impurity-containing ore deposits. Author's Note: All compositions are given in weight percent unless otherwise noted. The arms and armor section of most large museums display examples of Damascus steel weapons. This article is concerned with the second type of Damascus steel, sometimes called oriental Damascus. Zschokke Swords 1. J.D. Wootz steel. Swords manufactured from crucible steels, such as wootz steel, exhibit unique banding patterns due to the intermixed ferrite and cementite alloys in the steel Wootz steel is a steel characterized by a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix. It is the pioneering steel alloy matrix developed in South India in the sixth century BC and exported globally.

It was also known in the ancient world as Seric Iron. History[edit] The Wootz steel originated in South India and Sri Lanka.[1][2] There are several ancient Tamil, Greek, Chinese and Roman literary references to high carbon Indian steel since the time of Alexander's India campaign. The Tamilakam method was to heat black magnetite ore in the presence of carbon in a sealed clay crucible inside a charcoal furnace. [edit] From the 17th century onwards, several European travelers observed the steel manufacturing in South India, at Mysore, Malabar and Golconda.

Characteristics[edit] See also[edit] Carbon Nanotubes Were An Ancient Superweapon. Wootz steel. Wootz Ep 4: Making Wootz Steel. Memory alloy bounces back into shape 10 million times. Engineers have produced an alloy that springs back into shape even after it is bent more than 10 million times. "Memory shape alloys" like this have many potential uses, but present incarnations are prone to wearing out.

The new material - made from nickel, titanium and copper - shatters previous records and is so resilient it could be useful in artificial heart valves, aircraft components or a new generation of solid-state refrigerators. The work appears in Science Magazine. Memory alloys are already used in some situations, including surgical operations. But the alloys have never entirely fulfilled their promise and entered the world of "high cycle fatigue" applications. 'Leap forward' "Usually shape memory alloys - like in minimally invasive surgery - they regain their shape once, or a few times, but not multiple times," explained Prof Manfred Wuttig, one of the new paper's senior authors, from the University of Maryland in the US.

"This is highly unusual. Fridges and heart valves. Özelliklerine Çok Şaşıracağınız 10 İnsan Yapımı Malzeme. World Steel Association. World Steel Association, often abbreviated as worldsteel, is the international trade body for the iron and steel industry. The association represents approximately 170 steel producers (including 9 of the world's 10 largest steel companies), national and regional steel industry associations and steel research institutes. World Steel Association members represent around 85% of world steel production. The purpose of the association is to promote steel and the steel industry to customers, the industry, media and the general public. World Steel Association is a non-profit organisation with its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium and in Beijing, China. Membership[edit] Companies must produce at least 2 million tonnes of steel and operate as independent commercial enterprises in order to be eligible for regular membership. The World Steel Association publishes a list of the top steel-producing companies every year.[1] Areas of activity[edit] The World Steel Association's key areas of activity include:

Sözlük - Metalurji ve Malzeme Mühendisliği. Cupola furnace. France-METALLURGIE. Gemciler. Guide to "Working in Germany" 17 Websites That Will Make You Smarter. Se connecter à Facebook. How to Find an Internship in Germany - Young Germany. Advice from an interviewer. EXCEL DERSLERİ. iPhone 5'e titanyumdan sert 'zırh' geliyor - Hi-Tech. Materials Science and Engineering. The Sawon: Useful Links for Job Opportunities and Internships in Korea. How to Use LinkedIn to Boost Your Career. (x-post from r/Economics) List of 33 Free University Courses in Economics from MIT, Yale, Duke, Stanford etc. (from Beginner to Advanced levels) : Frugal. Kroll ve Hunter Prosesleri ile Titanyum Üretimi ve Şekillendirilmesi – KBT Bilim Sitesi.

Employers of Reddit: During an interview, when you ask "Have you any questions?", what are the questions we should be asking? [Serious] : AskReddit. 10 Amazing Man-made Substances. ALTEK DOKUM.