PLEASE NOTE: Carp were plentiful and most likely developing mutated colors long before this period in Japanese history. It has been suggested that carp came from China well before 200 AD, but there is nothing documented to suggest that any mutated colored carp were appreciated as ornamental fish, or an art form. In ancient times people would have been considered foolish not to eat a fish because it was "pretty." However, somewhere during the Shogun Dynasty carp became Koi and were bred to please the eye. If you the reader have interesting research that points to a specific time period in the history of Japan, please join our Pond and Koi Forum and let me know so I can amend this. History of Shoguns: Dynasty of Tokugawa Shoguns (1603-1868)
A Book of Five Rings In a short-sighted measure, the publishers of Book of 5 Rings have filed a DMCA takedown notice with my hosting provider (Amazon EC2). So, I no longer advise that you buy this edition of this book as I did previously. Please find one of the alternate translations and purchase it instead. Full DMCA notice: Hello, You have outstanding abuse reports against your EC2 instance(s) and we are notifying you that we have investigated and observed abuse activity. Please take corrective measures as soon as possible and notify us that you have done so.
Samurai 侍 - Japan Portal Hand-coloured print from the 1870s(Photo: Peabody Museum, Harvard) The word samurai has origins in the pre-Heian period, being derived from the classical Japanese verb saburau, meaning to serve or attend. It was not until the early modern period, namely the Azuchi-Momoyama period and early Edo period of the late 16th and early 17th centuries that the word saburai became replaced with samurai. However, by then, the meaning had already long before changed.