Truth Be Known. Book of the Dead. This detail scene, from the Papyrus of Hunefer (ca. 1275 BCE), shows the scribe Hunefer's heart being weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the jackal-headed Anubis.
The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart equals exactly the weight of the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If not, he is eaten by the waiting chimeric devouring creature Ammit composed of the deadly crocodile, lion, and hippopotamus. Vignettes such as these were a common illustration in Egyptian books of the dead. Books of Breathing. Mormon scholar Hugh Nibley, who was appointed by the LDS church to learn Egyptian in order to defend the claim that Joseph Smith had found and translated a document from the hand of Abraham, gives a short description of the Book of Breathings; "For the Book of Breathings is before all else, as Bonnet observes, a composite, made up of "compilations and excerpts from older funerary sources and mortuary formulas.
" [H. Bonnet, Reallexikon der Egyptischen Religionsgeschichte (Berlin, 1952), p. 59.] From the Second Book of Breathings, hardly distinguishable from it, it blends off into such earlier writings as "The Book of Passing through the Eternities," the "Amduat," and the "Book of Gates," in which we recognize most of the ideas and even phrases of the "Sensen" Papyrus. [W. Wreszinski, "Das Buch von Durchwandern der Ewigkeit," Aegyptische Zeitschrift (AZ) 45 (1908), pp. 111ff; Chassinat, "Le Livre second des Respirations," p. 315.] " See also Book of Abraham. A portion of the papyri considered by some to be source of the Book of Abraham.
The difference between Egyptologists' translation and Joseph Smith's interpretations have caused considerable controversy. The Book of Abraham is an 1835 work produced by Joseph Smith that he said was based on Egyptian papyri purchased from a traveling mummy exhibition. List of Book of the Dead spells. The Egyptian Book of the Dead Index. Sacred Texts Egypt The Papyrus of Ani by Introduction Translation Because of the substantial amount of hieroglypics interspersed in the original text, I have omitted the ### 'glyph' placeholder where context permits, for readability.
Only actual illustations have been inserted into the file. Maat. The earliest surviving records indicating Maat is the norm for nature and society, in this world and the next, were recorded during the Old Kingdom, the earliest substantial surviving examples being found in the Pyramid Texts of Unas (ca. 2375 BCE and 2345 BCE). Later, as a goddess in other traditions of the Egyptian pantheon, where most goddesses were paired with a male aspect, her masculine counterpart was Thoth and their attributes are the same.
Bardo Thodol. The Bardo Thodol (Tibetan: བར་དོ་ཐོས་གྲོལ, Wylie: bar do thos grol), "Liberation Through Hearing During the Intermediate State", is a text from a larger corpus of teachings, the "Profound Dharma of Self-Liberation through the Intention of the Peaceful and Wrathful Ones",[note 1] revealed by Karma Lingpa (1326–1386).
It is the best-known work of Nyingma literature, being known in the west as the Tibetan Book of the Dead. §Etymology Bardo thosgroll (Tibetan: བར་དོ་ཐོས་གྲོལ, Wylie: bar do thos grol: bar do, Sankrit antarabhāva - "intermediate state", "transitional state", "in-between state", "liminal state". Valdez: "Used loosely, the term "bardo" refers to the state of existence intermediate between two lives on earth. " §Original text §Origins and dating §bar do thos grol The Tibetan title is bar do thos grol, "Liberation Through Hearing During the Intermediate State". §kar-gling zhi-khro §Six bardos §English translations §Popular influence Egyptian Book of the Dead. The Egyptian Book of the Dead 1240 BC THE PAPYRUS OF ANI Translated by E.A.