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Noumena. Noumenon. Philosophical concept Etymology[edit] The Greek word νοούμενoν nooúmenon (plural νοούμενα nooúmena) is the neuter middle-passive present participle of νοεῖν noeîn "to think, to mean", which in turn originates from the word νοῦς noûs, an Attic contracted form of νόος nóos[a] "perception, understanding, mind. "[3][4] A rough equivalent in English would be "something that is thought", or "the object of an act of thought". Historical predecessors[edit] Regarding the equivalent concepts in Plato, Ted Honderich writes: "Platonic Ideas and Forms are noumena, and phenomena are things displaying themselves to the senses... Kantian noumena[edit] Overview[edit] As expressed in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, human understanding is structured by "concepts of the understanding", or pure categories of understanding found prior to experience in the mind, and which make outer experiences possible as counterpart to the rational faculties of the mind.[6][7] Noumenon and the thing-in-itself[edit] See also[edit]

Aristotle: Logic. Aristotelian logic, after a great and early triumph, consolidated its position of influence to rule over the philosophical world throughout the Middle Ages up until the 19th Century. All that changed in a hurry when modern logicians embraced a new kind of mathematical logic and pushed out what they regarded as the antiquated and clunky method of syllogisms. Although Aristotle’s very rich and expansive account of logic differs in key ways from modern approaches, it is more than a historical curiosity. It provides an alternative way of approaching logic and continues to provide critical insights into contemporary issues and concerns. The main thrust of this article is to explain Aristotle’s logical system as a whole while correcting some prominent misconceptions that persist in the popular understanding and even in some of the specialized literature.

Table of Contents 1. Ancient commentators regarded logic as a widely-applicable instrument or method for careful thinking. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. Philosophy and Logic. Superego. The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago. John Dalton (1766 – 1844), an English chemist and physicist, is the man credited today with the development of atomic theory. However, a theory of atoms was actually formulated2,500 years before Dalton by an Indian sage and philosopher, known as Acharya Kanad. Acharya Kanad was born in 600 BC in Prabhas Kshetra (near Dwaraka) in Gujarat, India. His real name was Kashyap. Kashyap was on a pilgrimage to Prayag when he saw thousands of pilgrims litter the streets with flowers and rice grains, which they offered at the temple.

Kashyap, fascinated by small particles, began collecting the grains of rice. Kanad pursued his fascination with the unseen world and with conceptualising the idea of the smallest particle. Kanad’s conception of Anu (the atom) Kanad was walking with food in his hand, breaking it into small pieces when he realised that he was unable to divide the food into any further parts, it was too small. By April Holloway References: How Different Cultures Understand Time. “Maybe Time Doesn’t Even Exist” Ancient Philosophy Timeline. Philosophy Timeline. 10 Mind-Blowing Theories That Will Change Your Perception of the World | Reality is not as obvious and simple as we like to think. Some of the things that we accept as true at face value are notoriously wrong. Scientists and philosophers have made every effort to change our common perceptions of it.

The 10 examples below will show you what I mean. 1. Great glaciation. Great glaciation is the theory of the final state that our universe is heading toward. The universe has a limited supply of energy. 2. Solipsism is a philosophical theory, which asserts that nothing exists but the individual’s consciousness. Don’t you believe me? As a result, which parts of existence can we not doubt? 3. George Berkeley, the father of Idealism, argued that everything exists as an idea in someone’s mind.

The idea being that if the stone really only exists in his imagination, he could not have kicked it with his eyes closed. 4. Everybody has heard of Plato. In addition to this stunning statement, Plato, being a monist, said that everything is made of a single substance. 5. 6. 7. Visualizing the History of Philosophy as a social network: The Problem with Hegel | Design and Analytics. Introduction This is Part I of a series. Part II is available here, and has an updated graphic.

How Important is Hegel?! I was surprised I hadn't seen this graphic at Drunks and Lampposts made with Gephi until a friend posted it on facebook last week. The original is here, and here's my version: Using a scrape of the data behind wikipedia's sidebar for philosophers, Simon Rapier put together a fantastic visualization of the schools and interconnections among philosophers. That's a solid aggregation of a lot of humanities information.

However, looking at the original graphs on D&L and Griffs, I was struck that Hegel seems far too influential in the domain of philosophers---if you've ever taken the singular continental philosophy course offered by your local analytic university department, you'll know what I mean, that that simply isn't his status in the field. So, to explore why this was the case, I replicated this graph based on Simon's excellent instructions. What happened when I ran it? Seven Blunders of the World. The Seven Social Sins, sometimes called the Seven Blunders of the World, is a list that Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi published in his weekly newspaper Young India on October 22, 1925.[1] Later, he gave this same list to his grandson Arun Gandhi, written on a piece of paper, on their final day together, shortly before his assassination.[2] The seven sins or blunders are: History and influence[edit] Mahatma Gandhi, who published the list in 1925 as a list of "Seven Social Sins" (1940s photo) The list was first published by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in his weekly newspaper Young India on October 22, 1925.[1] Gandhi wrote that a correspondent who he called a "fair friend" had sent the list: "The... fair friend wants readers of Young India to know, if they do not already, the following seven social sins,"[1] (the list was then provided).

In the decades since its first publication, the list has been widely cited and/or discussed. Easwaran, Eknath (1989). Gomes, Peter J. (2007). See also[edit] Mouvement Zeitgeist. Si le Mouvement Zeitgeist revendique aujourd'hui l'instauration d'un Modèle Économique Basé sur les Ressources (MEBR), nous ne pouvons toutefois nier la présente société, ni le mode de fonctionnement périmé que cette dernière nous impose au quotidien. Il est de notre conviction que l'organisation sociale actuelle peut et doit être activement combattue, sur le fond comme sur la forme, sur tous les terrains, par l'ensemble des êtres humains soucieux de leurs semblables et de leur planète.

Notre soutien individuel à un système social et économique aussi dépassé que nuisible constitue un obstacle au développement d'une nouvelle forme de cohésion, d'une nouvelle conscience individuelle et collective, d'un nouveau modèle social juste et équitable. Cependant, l'unité n'est possible que sous le signe de l'humanité vraie et non subordonnée à l'obligation. Le guide à télécharger sous forme de brochure 1 - La remise en question du système bancaire et économique Ainsi, nous préconisons : The Tao.

Why Physicists Are Saying Consciousness Is A State Of Matter, Like a Solid, A Liquid Or A Gas — The Physics arXiv Blog. There’s a quiet revolution underway in theoretical physics. For as long as the discipline has existed, physicists have been reluctant to discuss consciousness, considering it a topic for quacks and charlatans. Indeed, the mere mention of the ‘c’ word could ruin careers. That’s finally beginning to change thanks to a fundamentally new way of thinking about consciousness that is spreading like wildfire through the theoretical physics community.

And while the problem of consciousness is far from being solved, it is finally being formulated mathematically as a set of problems that researchers can understand, explore and discuss. Today, Max Tegmark, a theoretical physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, sets out the fundamental problems that this new way of thinking raises. Tegmark’s approach is to think of consciousness as a state of matter, like a solid, a liquid or a gas. Tegmark does not have an answer. Tree of the knowledge of good and evil. In Genesis[edit] Motif[edit] Composition[edit] In the phrase, tree of knowledge of good and evil, the tree imparts knowledge of tov wa-ra, "good and bad".

The traditional translation is "good and evil", but tov wa-ra is a fixed expression denoting "everything". To Harry Orlinsky, this phrase does not necessarily denote a moral concept.[4] However, Robert Alter believes that there could be a moral connotation after all: When God forbids the man to eat from the tree of knowledge, He says that if he does so, he is "doomed to die". The Hebrew behind this, is in the form used in the Hebrew Bible for issuing death sentences. Religious views[edit] Judaism[edit] In Jewish tradition, the Tree of Knowledge and the eating of its fruit represents the beginning of the mixture of good and evil together. Christianity[edit] Islam[edit] When they ate from this tree their nakedness appeared to them and they began to sew together, for their covering, leaves from the Garden.

Other cultures[edit] See also[edit] Swami Vivekananda on the Secret of Work: Intelligent Consolation for the Pressures of Productivity from 1896. By Maria Popova “Every work that we do… every thought that we think, leaves such an impression on the mind-stuff…” In December of 1895, the renowned Indian Hindu monk and philosopher Swami Vivekananda, then in his early thirties, traveled to New York, rented a couple of rooms at 228 West 39th Street, where he spent a month holding a series of public lectures on the notion of karma — translated as work — and various other aspects of mental discipline.

They attracted a number of famous followers, including groundbreaking inventor Nikola Tesla and pioneering psychologist and philosopher William James, and were eventually transcribed and published as Karma Yoga: The Yoga of Action (public library) in 1896. Among the most timeless of them is one titled “The Secret of Work,” in which Vivekananda examines with ever-timely poignancy the ways in which we mistake the doing for the being and worship the perspirations of our productivity over the aspirations of our soul.

Donating = Loving. Understanding the Fibonacci Sequence and Golden Ratio. The Fibonacci Sequence The Fibonacci sequence is possibly the most simple recurrence relation occurring in nature. It is 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89, 144… each number equals the sum of the two numbers before it, and the difference of the two numbers succeeding it. It is an infinite sequence which goes on forever as it develops. The Golden Ratio/Divine Ratio or Golden Mean - The quotient of any Fibonacci number and it’s predecessor approaches Phi, represented as ϕ (1.618), the Golden ratio. The Golden Ratio is best understood geometrically by the golden rectangle. A rectangle unevenly divided resulting into one square and one rectangle, the square’s sides would have the ratio of 1:1, and the new rectangle would be exactly proportionate to the original rectangle – 1:1.618.

This iteration can continue both ways, infinitely. The Golden Ratio can be seen from a Chambered Nautilus to a Spiraling Galaxy Sunflowers have a Golden Spiral seed arrangement. Image source Phi Golden Ratio. Quantified Self | Self Knowledge Through NumbersQuantified Self | Self Knowledge Through Numbers. NEWSLETTER 10 SPRING 2014 - Philosophy Cosmos.