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How to Extract DNA from Anything Living. First, you need to find something that contains DNA. Since DNA is the blueprint for life, everything living contains DNA. For this experiment, we like to use green split peas. But there are lots of other DNA sources too, such as: Spinach Chicken liver Strawberries Broccoli Certain sources of DNA should not be used, such as: Your family pet, Fido the dog Your little sister's big toe Bugs you caught in the yard Step 1: Blender Insanity!

Put in a blender: 1/2 cup of split peas (100ml) 1/8 teaspoon table salt (less than 1ml) 1 cup cold water (200ml) Blend on high for 15 seconds. The blender separates the pea cells from each other, so you now have a really thin pea-cell soup. Step 2: Soapy Peas Pour your thin pea-cell soup through a strainer into another container (like a measuring cup). Add 2 tablespoons liquid detergent (about 30ml) and swirl to mix. Let the mixture sit for 5-10 minutes. Pour the mixture into test tubes or other small glass containers, each about 1/3 full. Why am I adding detergent? Aeroponics. Thumbnail of lettuce and wheat grown in an aeroponic apparatus, NASA, 1998. Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate medium (known as geoponics).

The word "aeroponic" is derived from the Greek meanings of aero- (air) and ponos (labour). Aeroponic culture differs from both conventional hydroponics, aquaponics, and in-vitro (plant tissue culture) growing. Unlike hydroponics, which uses a liquid nutrient solution as a growing medium and essential minerals to sustain plant growth; or aquaponics which uses water and fish waste, aeroponics is conducted without a growing medium.[1][not in citation given] Because water is used in aeroponics to transmit nutrients, it is sometimes considered a type of hydroponics. Methods[edit] High-pressure aeroponics is defined as delivering nutrients to the roots via 20–50 micrometre mist heads using a high-pressure (80 pounds per square inch (550 kPa)) diaphragm pump. Nutrient uptake[edit] 10 Homemade Organic Pesticides - My Gardening Stories.

Ever wonder what farmers did hundreds of years ago to fight off crop pests? Long before the invention of harmful chemical pesticides (yes, the kind that is linked to cancerous cellular activity), farmers and householders came up with multiple remedies for removing insect infestations from their garden plants. The following list will offer some of our favorite, all-natural, inexpensive, organic methods for making bug-busting pesticides for your home garden. 1. Neem Ancient Indians highly revered neem oil as a powerful, all-natural plant for warding off pests.

In fact, neem juice is the most powerful natural pesticide on the planet, holding over 50 natural insecticides. 2. For treating plants infested with spider mites, mix 2 tablespoons of Himalayan Crystal Salt into one gallon of warm water and spray on infected areas. 3. Mix 10-30 ml of high-grade oil with one liter of water. 4.

This is another great organic pesticide that works well on ants. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Tobacco 10. The Monsanto Equalizer: Patented BioTechnology Renders All Chemical Pesticides Obsolete | Conquer Fear and Live Free! Most biotech companies, especially Monsanto have engaged themselves in the wanton tampering of Nature’s way of doing things for decades, the destructive effects of which are just beginning to be appreciated by the mainstream population. Their motivation has always been about making bigger profits than the last one. So, they keep creating any problem they could think of in order to keep selling their “solutions” and rake as much profit as possible with the able collaboration of the regulators themselves.

And as always, any pests and parasites always develop resistance against chemical concoctions in time rendering these products absolutely useless. This grave insult to Science is now under threat when a natural pesticide was discovered on top of the natural method to produce so much food than the world actually need. You can download your own copy of the patent from Google Patent repository right here. “Chemical pesticides destroying our planet Insects tricked into taking the bait Related. Patent US7122176 - Mycoattractants and mycopesticides - Google Patents. This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/678,141 for MYCOPESTICIDES, filed Oct. 3, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,660,290 herein incorporated in its entirety by reference. 1. The present invention relates to mycology, entomology and the use of fungal mycelium as insect attractants (mycoattractants) and biopesticides (mycopesticides). 2.

Insects are among the most diverse and numerous life forms on earth. The use of chemical pesticides is the cause of many secondary environmental problems aside from the death of the targeted pest. Compounding these problems, many pest type or vermin insects have developed a broad spectrum of resistance to chemical pesticides, resulting in few commercially available pesticides that are effective without thorough and repeated applications.

Biological control agents have been tried with varying results. A particular disadvantage with conidial preparations becomes apparent from U.S. U.S. Salt-tolerant bacteria improve crop yields -- ScienceDaily. Uzbek microbiologist Dilfuza Egamberdieva hopes to apply her new agricultural technique soon in Uzbekistan to boost the yield of economically important crops such as wheat, cotton, tomato and cucumber. She presented her work at this year's TWAS General Meeting. Egamberdieva, group leader at the National University of Uzbekistan, at Tashkent, has isolated salt-tolerant bacterial strains that live in salt-degraded soils, where they help the rooting process in plants. After the selection of potentially root-colonizing bacteria, she has tested them in experimental settings on plants' roots, obtaining 10-15% yields increase.

More than 2.6 billion people in the world rely on agriculture, but around 52% of the land used for this scope shows soil degradation. Land impoverishment is often due to salt infiltrations in the ground, which weaken the plants and lower the yield. Salt inhibits "nodulation," the development of tiny nodules on plants' roots, where nitrogen fixation occurs. Breakthrough: How salt stops plant growth -- ScienceDaily. Until now it has not been clear how salt, a scourge to agriculture, halts the growth of the plant-root system.

A team of researchers, led by the Carnegie Institution's José Dinneny and Lina Duan, found that not all types of roots are equally inhibited. They discovered that an inner layer of tissue in the branching roots that anchor the plant is sensitive to salt and activates a stress hormone, which stops root growth. The study, published in the current issue of The Plant Cell, is a boon for understanding the stress response and for developing salt-resistant crops. Salt accumulates in irrigated soils due to the evaporation of water, which leaves salt behind. The United Nations estimates that salinity affects crops on about 200 million acres (80 million hectares) of arable land and not just in developing countries, but areas such as California as well. "We are familiar with how animals use a fight or flight strategy to face external challenges.

Hormones that guide root growth rates revealed -- ScienceDaily. A plant's roots grow and spread into the soil, taking up necessary water and minerals. The tip of a plant's root is a place of active cell division followed by cell elongation, with different zones dedicated to different functions, all working together to expand into new depths of the soil. Achieving an optimal root growth rate is critical for plant survival under drought conditions, as well as for maximizing resource allocation to the important plant parts such as the fruits and seeds. This is why root-expansion mechanisms are of great interest to scientists and to those interested in improving agricultural yields.

On a cellular level, as the tips of a plant's roots expand downward, they must coordinate two different, but related, balancing acts. One of the major driving factors of root tip growth discovered by Chaiwanon and Wang is the class of steroid hormones called brassinosteroids, which they found act on a concentration gradient to regulate root growth patterns. Want bigger plants? Get to the root of the matter -- ScienceDaily. Plant scientists have imaged and analyzed, for the first time, how a potted plant's roots are arranged in the soil as the plant develops. In this study, to be presented at the Society for Experimental Biology meeting on 30th June, the team has also found that doubling plant pot size makes plants grow over 40% larger.

From their 3-D MRI root scans, the researchers observed that potted plants quickly extend their roots to the pot's walls. It is likely that the plants use their roots to 'sense' the size of the pot, although the details of how the roots relay the message about the pot's size remain the plants' secret. They also looked at 65 independent studies across a wide range of species including tomato, corn, pine tree, cactus, wheat, and cotton plants, and found that all species reach larger sizes when grown in a bigger pot.

The work is relevant for gardeners too. To understand the pot size effect, the scientists looked at various aspects of the plants' growth. Plant welfare is improved by fungi in soil -- ScienceDaily. A University of York biologist is part of an international team of scientists that has discovered how plants use fungi to help them to gather vital nutrients from the soil. The team of Dr Michael Schultze, of the Department of Biology at York, working with colleagues in China, France and USA as well as the John Innes Centre at Norwich, studied the symbiosis between fungus and the roots of Medicago truncatula. The research may point the way to the development of higher yield crops using plants' own organic tools rather than fertilizers.

The researchers found that a protein, known as a proton pump, at the interface of fungus and root cells energises cell membranes creating a pathway into the plant cell for nutrients such as phosphorus. Most plant species are able to exploit an intimate relationship with beneficial fungi in the soil to form mycorrhizas (fungal roots). Water found to provide blueprints for root architecture -- ScienceDaily.

Soil is a microscopic maze of nooks and crannies that hosts a wide array of life. Plants explore this environment by developing a complex branched network of roots that tap into scarce resources such as water and nutrients. How roots sense which regions of soil contain water and what effect this moisture has on the architecture of the root system has been unclear. New research from a team led by Carnegie's José Dinneny focuses on how physical properties of a root's local environment control root branching and through which developmental pathways these signals act.

Their findings, published by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describe a novel process called hydropatterning that allows plants to optimize root branching for water uptake. Plant roots form a branching network like that above ground, with lateral roots growing out from a main axis. "We had completely underestimated the spatial acuity of the patterning system in the root. Desert farming forms bacterial communities that promote drought resistance -- ScienceDaily.

When there is little water available for plants to grow, their roots form alliances with soil microbes that can promote plant growth even under water-limiting conditions, according to research published Oct. 31 by Daniele Daffonchio and colleagues from the University of Milan, Italy in the open access journal PLOS ONE. Symbiotic relationships between plants and soil microbial communities are critical to the health of plants.

Though the effects of drought on plants are well-known, little is known about how lack of water affects the bacteria around plant roots. In this study, the researchers grew pepper plants under conditions of limited water and analyzed the bacterial species around the roots of the plants. They found that drought stress enriched the microbial communities with bacteria capable of increasing plant photosynthesis and biomass production by up to 40% under limited water conditions. Root microbiome engineering improves plant growth -- ScienceDaily. Humans have been breeding crops until they're bigger and more nutritious since the early days of agriculture, but genetic manipulation isn't the only way to give plants a boost.

In a review paper published on September 25 in Trends in Microbiology, two integrative biologists present how it is possible to engineer the plant soil microbiome to improve plant growth, even if the plants are genetically identical and cannot evolve. These artificially selected microbiomes, which can also be selected in animals, can then be passed on from parents to offspring. Only a few published studies have looked at the effects of artificially selecting microbiomes. In their own labs, the authors--Ulrich Mueller of the University of Texas at Austin and Joel Sachs of the University of California, Riverside--have seen microbiome engineering to be successful with Arabidopsis (a close relative of cabbage and broccoli). Aquaponics. 14 Genius Ways To Recycle Used Coffee Grounds. Coffee is good for more than just waking you up in the morning! Take a look at this list and find the perfect recycling tips and tricks so you can enjoy your coffee again – even after you’ve finished enjoying your morning cup of Joe!

You’ll never throw your away your used coffee grounds again after seeing just how many things you can do with them! How To Use Old Coffee Grounds In the Garden: 1. Sprinkle used coffee grounds around your plants to protect them against destructive garden pests like ants, snails, and slugs. 2. If you grow azaleas, hydrangeas, rhododendrons, camellias, roses, or other acid-loving plants, then used coffee is the fertilizer for you! Just remember that this fertilizer lacks phosphorus and calcium so it isn’t ideal for encouraging blooms and fruiting. 3.

If you don’t have a use for coffee ground fertilizer right away, go ahead and throw it on the compost heap. 4. If you love carrots and you love coffee, then you’re in business! 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Gardening and Foraging. Aquaponic Gardening: Growing Fish and Vegetables Together. What if I told you that you could catch fish for dinner right in your own backyard? And if you did, what if I told you that right up until you caught those fish, they were growing the veggies for the rest of your dinner? Would you believe me? You should! This is all within reach using a new style of gardening called aquaponics. Aquaponics is, at its most basic level, the marriage of aquaculture (raising fish) and hydroponics (growing plants in water and without soil) together in one integrated system. Any type of fresh water fish works well in an aquaponic system. There are also only a few limits to the types of plants you can grow in an aquaponics system.

So can all of this work in any climate? Here is the rest of the good news about aquaponics: Aquaponic gardening enables home fish farming. Aquaponic gardens are straight forward to set up and operate in your own backyard or home as long as you follow some basic guidelines. Let the Fish do the work. Thriving Bottle Garden Hasn't Been Watered in Over 40 Years. Gravity Feed Watering System - No Electricity. Part 5: How to build extremely simple hydroponics system. Part 5: How to build extremely simple hydroponics system.

Plants For A Future : 7000 Edible, Medicinal & Useful Plants. Farming & gardening. Nutrients. The Latest Clean Energy Cocktail: Bacteria And Fungus. 22 trees that can be tapped for sap and syrup | Wild Foodism. 100 years ago, people were eating things that most of us will never taste. So what happened? If All These Rooms Were in One House, It Would be the Coolest House in the World. Especially #8. Jerry Baker's Old-Time Gardening Wisdom: Lessons Learned from Grandma Putt's Kitchen Cupboard, Medicine Cabinet, and Garden Shed! (Jerry Baker Good Gardening series): Jerry Baker, Kim Gasior: 9780922433353: Control of Food Supply. Recycling Guide.

Toxic Residues of Pesticides, Hormones, etc. Soil Detoxification and Preparation. What's Wrong With My Plant? Leaves Often Hold the Clues. 10 Mosquitoes Controlling Plants for Home. 10 Incredible Uses for Epsom Salt in the Garden. Recycling animal and human dung is the key to sustainable farming. Are Coffee Grounds Good For Plants? How Plants Help Each Other Grow By Near-Telepathic Communication. Top 10 Most Dangerous Plants In the World. How to: create a Planting Calendar, Allsun style. The Smart Way To Plan Your Vegetable Garden.

The Garden Planting Calendar (All Things Plants) Intensive Rotational Targeted Grazing. Rainwater Collection. Alt.water. The 7 Deadly Homemade Weed Killers. How to Make a Worm Compost System: 10 Steps. Worms that can eat plastic could save us from destroying the planet.

How to grow

Biodynamic Sowing and Planting Calendar 2015. The One-Straw Revolution. Computer Aided Farming. The Rise of Urban Farming and Other Varieties of Sustainable Ag. Compact Window Hydroponic Gardening System Fits Tight Urban Spaces. Gardening Without a Garden: 10 Ideas for Your Patio or Balcony — From the Archives: Greatest Hits. Ollas: A Collection of Information and Techniques. Olla's with a twist. Garden Igloo - Garden Igloo. How to Build a GeoDome Greenhouse - Northern Homestead. Greenhouses Made With Salvaged Windows. Organic Farming. Urban Gardening / Farming. Gardening Without a Garden: 10 Ideas for Your Patio or Balcony Renters Solutions. Square foot gardening. Vertical Herb Gardens. Vertical Gardening / Farming.

12 Vertical Garden Tutorials. Living Walls - Vertical Gardens - Living Roofs - Vertical Landscapes - South Africa. Building a bottle tower for container gardening. Cheap Do It Yourself Vertical Gardens. DIY $2 self-watering garden bed - Grow produce easily, even in the toughest drought conditions -

Sub-irrigated planter. Gardening. Agriculture / Gardening. Aquaponics Manuals. Aquaponics. Making a DIY Bathtub Aquaponics System - Milkwood. Hydroponics, greenhouses, water . . Hydroponics. Compact Window Hydroponic Gardening System Fits Tight Urban Spaces. Permaculture. Open Source Permaculture – help to build the most comprehensive free resource for Permaculture education. Permaculture. Permaculture. Off Gridders | A Practical Guide for Permaculturists Living Free. Coppicing - A Lost Art Revisited - Verge Permaculture. GM crops: campaigners in Ghana accuse US of pushing modified food | Afua Hirsch | Global development. Choosing The Best Indoor Plants For Your Interior. Farming Techniques. Mandala Garden. Zeewierfarm kan net zoveel duurzame energie leveren als windmolens.