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The Peter Principle is a proposition that states that the members of an organization where promotion is based on achievement, success, and merit, will eventually be promoted beyond their level of ability. The principle is commonly phrased, "Employees tend to rise to their level of incompetence." In more formal parlance, the effect could be stated as: employees tend to be given more authority until they cannot continue to work competently . It was formulated by Laurence J. Peter and Raymond Hull in their 1969 book The Peter Principle , a humorous [ 1 ] treatise, which also introduced the "salutary science of hierarchiology". The principle holds that in a hierarchy , members are promoted so long as they work competently.
Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-AssessmentsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology Selected Article © 1999 by the American Psychological Association For personal use only--not for distribution December 1999 Vol. 77, No. 6, 1121-1134 Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments Justin Kruger and David Dunning Department of Psychology Cornell University
The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority , mistakenly rating their ability much higher than average. This bias is attributed to a metacognitive inability of the unskilled to recognize their mistakes. [ 1 ] Actual competence may weaken self-confidence, as competent individuals may falsely assume that others have an equivalent understanding.
Why is innovation in innovation management so difficult? One explanation that has been developing in my mind involves what I call the “bozonet”. A bozonet is a largely inexpert social network incapable of distinguishing expertise from non-expertise. A bozonet is unsure of the future as a consequence of lacking experience with which to anticipate that future. A bozonet represents itself as standard practice based on ubiquity of like seeming practice, and is ready to claim positions of authority and prestige though ill suited for them, using organized appearances and plausible deniability to shift attention from what doesn’t work.
#60 from R&D Innovator Volume 2, Number 10 October 1993 Beware of Skilled Incompetence by Chris Argyris, Ph.D. Dr. Argyris is James Bryant Conant Professor of Education and Organizational Behavior at the Harvard Graduate School of Business.
The Vogons are a fictional alien race from the planet Vogsphere in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy series by Douglas Adams , who are responsible for the destruction of the Earth, in order to facilitate an intergalactic highway construction project. Vogons are slug-like but vaguely humanoid , are bulkier than humans, and have green skin. In the motion picture , they are depicted as having greyish white skin.
Strictly Ballroom is a 1992 Australian romantic comedy film directed and co-written by Baz Luhrmann and produced by M&A Productions. The film is the first installment in The Red Curtain Trilogy , Luhrmann's trilogy of theatre-motif-related films; the follow-ups were Romeo + Juliet and Moulin Rouge! . The film was based on a stage play originally developed by Luhrmann and others while he was studying at the National Institute of Dramatic Arts in Sydney in the mid-1980s, and which was later expanded for a successful season at Sydney's Wharf Theatre in 1988.
Simpson's paradox for continuous data: a positive trend appears for two separate groups (blue and red), a negative trend (black, dashed) appears when the data are combined. This clickable gif image shows an explicative example of Simpson's Paradox. Though the percentage of male students who obtained the scholarship for maths is higher than the percentage of female students who obtained that scholarship, and the percentage of male students who obtained the scholarship for physics is higher than the percentage of female students who obtained that scholarship, the percentage of male students who obtained a scholarship (for maths or for physics) is lower than the percentage of female students who obtained a scholarship.
"Send in the Clowns" is a song by Stephen Sondheim from the 1973 musical A Little Night Music , an adaptation of Ingmar Bergman 's film Smiles of a Summer Night . It is a ballad from Act II in which the character Desirée reflects on the ironies and disappointments of her life. Among other things, she looks back on an affair years earlier with the lawyer Fredrik. Meeting him after so long, she finds that he is now in an unconsummated marriage with a much younger woman.
by Stealers Wheel. From Reservoir Dogs Send “Stuck in the Middle With You” Ringtone to Cell Stuck in the Middle With You by Stealers Wheel Well I don't know why I came here tonight, I got the feeling that something ain't right, I'm so scared in case I fall off my chair, And I'm wondering how I'll get down the stairs, Clowns to the left of me, Jokers to the right, here I am, Stuck in the middle with you.
One of the most salient features of our culture is that there is so much bullshit. Everyone knows this. Each of us contributes his share. But we tend to take the situation for granted. Most people are rather confident of their ability to recognize bullshit and to avoid being taken in by it. So the phenomenon has not aroused much deliberate concern.
"As far as we know, Michael Crichton, author of Jurassic Park, is an evolutionist, however many of his crticisms of mainstream science and it's political, bullying nature are the same ones we've tried to make on these pages...webmaster Caltech Michelin Lecture January 17, 2003