C, C++, and C#
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This item was added on: 2003/02/23 For single characters converting to upper/lower case is simple, use the functions toupper() and tolower() included in ctype.h (or cctype in C++) For example:
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In computer science , a mask is data that is used for bitwise operations , particularly in a bit field . Using a mask, multiple bits in a byte, nibble , word (etc.) can be set either on, off or inverted from on to off (or vice versa) in a single bitwise operation. [ edit ] Common bitmask functions [ edit ] Masking bits to 1 To turn certain bits on, the bitwise OR operation can be used, following the principle that Y OR 1 = 1 and Y OR 0 = Y . Therefore, to make sure a bit is on, OR can be used with a 1 .
This is a list of operators in the C and C++ programming languages . All the operators listed exist in C++; the fourth column "Included in C", dictates whether an operator is also present in C. Note that C does not support operator overloading . When not overloaded, for the operators && , || , and , (the comma operator ), there is a sequence point after the evaluation of the first operand. C++ also contains the type conversion operators const_cast , static_cast , dynamic_cast , and reinterpret_cast . The formatting of these operators means that their precedence level is unimportant.
When working with arrays, we typically use the subscript operator () to index specific elements of an array: However, consider the following IntList class, which has a member variable that is an array: Because the m_anList member variable is private, we can not access it directly from cMyList. This means we have no way to directly get or set values in the m_anList array.
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C & C++
C++ provides the following classes to perform output and input of characters to/from files: ofstream: Stream class to write on files ifstream: Stream class to read from files fstream: Stream class to both read and write from/to files. These classes are derived directly or indirectly from the classes istream , and ostream . We have already used objects whose types were these classes: cin is an object of class istream and cout is an object of class ostream . Therefore, we have already been using classes that are related to our file streams. And in fact, we can use our file streams the same way we are already used to use cin and cout , with the only difference that we have to associate these streams with physical files. Let's see an example:
Next: Using the MMAB Class Up: C++ for Ocean Modeling Previous: Objects: Operators, and Overloading Templates and inheritance different things, but they derive from the same principle. The principle is that objects should behave in the same way as similar objects.
Daniel Plakosh, Software Engineering Institute [ vita ] Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. C++ programmers have the option of using the standard std::string class defined in ISO/IEC 14882. The std::string generally protects against buffer overflow. Development Context String manipulation
The sample code below illustrates how to use the string::getline STL function in Visual C++. Required header Prototype