background preloader


Facebook Twitter

กระดาษทรายกับงานไม้ กระดาษทรายกับงานไม้ กระดาษทรายที่ใช้กับงานขัดไม้ ก่อนการทำสี การขัดด้วยกระดาษทราย การขัดไม้ก่อนทำสี จะมีลำดับการทำงานคือ การขัดหยาบ ขัดเรียบ ขัดละเอียด.


The Chemistry of Soaps. Soaps, Detergents and Cleaning Fats are isolated from plants and animals.

The Chemistry of Soaps

The properties such as solubility relate to their chemical structures. Fats are heated with a strong base to convert them into soaps. The fat you use to make soap, reacts with potassium hydroxide to produce a potassium soap, the potassium salt of the fatty acid. One typical animal fat, stearol, reacts with KOH to form potassium stearate, a soap. The potassium soap formed from your fat is converted to a sodium soap by replacing the potassium ions with sodium ions.

Both potassium and sodium soaps dissolve in water and are effective as cleaning agents. The nonpolar ends of the molecule associate with the fat, grime or dirt which is also nonpolar, The polar or ionic end of the molecule attracts the water molecules. Magnesium and calcium salts of the same fatty acids that make up potassium and sodium soaps are not water soluble. How to Create a Faux Driftwood Finish — THAT Your ads will be inserted here by Easy AdSense.

How to Create a Faux Driftwood Finish — THAT

Please go to the plugin admin page toPaste your ad code OR Suppress this ad slot. How do you make yellow pine look like driftwood? Any paint techniques for that? Thai architecture. Bardage bois : Quels sont les avantages ? Exemples de bardages bois Le bardage bois est une technique permettant à la fois d’optimiser l’isolation de votre bâtiment tout en donnant une nouvelle jeunesse à vos façades.

Bardage bois : Quels sont les avantages ?

La technique consiste à habiller vos façades existantes de bois. Vous pouvez habiller l’ensemble de votre bâtiment ou seulement certaines parties. Janka hardness test. The Janka hardness test measures the resistance of a sample of wood to denting and wear.

Janka hardness test

It measures the force required to embed an 11.28mm (.444 in) steel ball into wood to half the ball's diameter. This method leaves an indentation. A common use of Janka hardness ratings is to determine whether a species is suitable for use as flooring. The hardness of wood varies with the direction of the wood grain. Testing on the surface of a plank, perpendicular to the grain, is said to be of "side hardness". The Janka Hardness test results tabulated below were done in accordance with ASTM D 1037-12 testing methods. Material Properties of Teak, Wood Class I (>25y)

Class of durability Australia. In general, there are two main factors that influence the durability of timber in service. The first is the natural durability of the particular species. The second is the type and degree of hazard to which the timber is exposed. Grade of wood. VOCS emission. VOCs are numerous, varied, and ubiquitous.

VOCS emission

They include both human-made and naturally occurring chemical compounds. Most scents or odours are of VOCs. VOCs play an important role in communication between plants, [1] and messages from plants to animals. Some VOCs are dangerous to human health or cause harm to the environment. Anthropogenic VOCs are regulated by law, especially indoors, where concentrations are the highest. Definitions[edit] Diverse definitions of the term VOC[2] are in use. The definitions of VOCs used for control of precursors of photochemical smog used by the EPA, and states in the US with independent outdoor air pollution regulations include exemptions for VOCs that are determined to be non-reactive, or of low-reactivity in the smog formation process. Canada[edit] Health Canada classes VOCs as organic compounds that have boiling points roughly in the range of 50 to 250 °C (122 to 482 °F).

German DIN 1 bis DIN 499. Das DIN – D eutsches I nstitut für N ormung e. V. – ist die nationale Normungsorganisation der Bundesrepublik Deutschland mit Sitz in Berlin . DIN EN-Normen, DIN EN ISO-Normen und Normentwürfe werden in dieser Aufstellung nicht angeführt; einige ausgewählte Normentwürfe sind am Ende der Liste in einem eigenen Abschnitt aufgeführt. Die bei älteren Normausgaben (älter als Mitte der 1970er Jahre) verwendete Bezeichnung „Blatt“ wurde einheitlich in „Teil“ überführt. Wenn nicht gesondert vermerkt, ist das Zurückziehungsdatum einer alten Norm gleich dem Ausgabedatum der ersetzenden Norm. Die Eintragung „→ aktuell“ bedeutet, dass die Norm am 1. WWA Wood Sampler.

Document technique unifié. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

Document technique unifié

Un document technique unifié (DTU) est un document applicable aux marchés de travaux de bâtiment en France. Il est établi par la « Commission Générale de Normalisation du Bâtiment/DTU » dont le Centre scientifique et technique du bâtiment assure le secrétariat. Composition des DTU[modifier | modifier le code] Un DTU peut se composer des documents suivants : Le cahier des clauses techniques (CCT) qui définit les conditions à respecter dans le choix et la mise en œuvre des matériaux ;Le cahier des clauses spéciales (CCS) qui accompagne le CCT et définit les limites des prestations et obligations envers les autres corps de métier ;Les règles de calcul pour le dimensionnement des ouvrages. Ces trois types de documents sont d'application contractuelle. Évolution du statut des DTU[modifier | modifier le code] Les DTU sont établis par une instance, appelée à sa création en 1958, Groupe de Coordination des Textes Techniques ou encore Groupe DTU. List of EN standards. This is an incomplete list of European standards maintained by CEN (European Committee for Standardization), CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) and ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute): EN 1–999[edit] EN 1: Flued oil stoves with vaporizing burnersEN 2: Classification of firesEN 3: Portable fire extinguishersEN 54: Fire detection and fire alarm systemsEN 71: Safety of toysEN 81: Safety of liftsEN 115: Safety of escalators & Moving walksEN 166: Personal eye protection.

List of EN standards

EN 1000–1899[edit] EN 1069: Water slides of 2 m height and moreEN 1078: Helmets for pedal cyclists and for users of skateboards and roller skatesEN 1090: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures (3 parts)EN 1092: Flanges and their joints. Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN designatedEN 1168: Precast concrete products - Hollow core slabsEN 1176-1: Playground equipment.