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Hexagon Quilt by Isabelle Etienne-Bugnot. Portland cement. A pallet with Portland cement Portland cement clinker is a hydraulic material which shall consist of at least two-thirds by mass of calcium silicates (3 CaO·SiO2 and 2 CaO·SiO2), the remainder consisting of aluminium- and iron-containing clinker phases and other compounds.

Portland cement

The ratio of CaO to SiO2 shall not be less than 2.0. The magnesium oxide content (MgO) shall not exceed 5.0% by mass. (The last two requirements were already set out in the German Standard, issued in 1909). Polyurethane. Polyurethane synthesis, wherein the urethane groups — NH-(C=O)-O- link the molecular units.


Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links. While most polyurethanes are thermosetting polymers that do not melt when heated, thermoplastic polyurethanes are also available. Polyurethane polymers are traditionally and most commonly formed by reacting a di- or polyisocyanate with a polyol. Both the isocyanates and polyols used to make polyurethanes contain on average two or more functional groups per molecule. Some noteworthy recent efforts have been dedicated to minimizing the use of isocyanates to synthesize polyurethanes, because the isocyanates raise severe toxicity issues.

Polyurethane products often are simply called “urethanes”, but should not be confused with ethyl carbamate, which is also called urethane. Materials science. Depiction of two "Fullerene Nano-gears" with multiple teeth.

Materials science

Materials science, also commonly known as materials engineering, is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. This relatively new scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry, with significant media attention focused on Nano science and nanotechnology. Cryogenic grinding. Stock Material. Fullerene. The discovery of fullerenes greatly expanded the number of known carbon allotropes, which until recently were limited to graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon such as soot and charcoal.


Buckyballs and buckytubes have been the subject of intense research, both for their unique chemistry and for their technological applications, especially in materials science, electronics, and nanotechnology. History[edit] The icosahedral fullerene C540, another member of the family of fullerenes. Wootz steel. Swords manufactured from crucible steels, such as wootz steel, exhibit unique banding patterns due to the intermixed ferrite and cementite alloys in the steel Wootz steel is a steel characterized by a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix.

Wootz steel

It is stated to have developed in India around 300 BC.[1] The word wootz[2] may have been a mistranscription of wook, an anglicised version of urukku (உருக்கு) (ഉരുക്കു), the word for melting in Tamil and Malayalam or urukke, the word for steel in Kannada (ಉರ್‍ಕು, ಉಕ್ಕು), Telugu (ఉక్కు) and many other Dravidian languages. History[edit] According to traditional history wootz steel originated in India in the 3rd century BCE.[3] There is archaeological evidence of the manufacturing process in South India from that time.[4][5] Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe and the Arab world, and became particularly famous in the Middle East, where it was known as Damascus steel.[6] History of ferrous metallurgy. Ferrous metallurgy involves processes and alloys based on iron.

History of ferrous metallurgy

It began far back in prehistory. The earliest surviving iron artifacts, from the 5th millennium BC in Iran and 2nd millennium BC in China, were made from meteoritic iron-nickel.[1] By the end of the 2nd millennium BC iron was being produced from iron ores from South of the Saharan Africa to China.[2] The use of wrought iron was known in the 1st millennium BC. Mobile Machine Shop US Army 1943.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Milling machine. Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece advancing (or feeding) in a direction at an angle with the axis of the tool.

Milling machine

It covers a wide variety of different operations and machines, on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy-duty gang milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used processes in industry and machine shops today for machining parts to precise sizes and shapes. Face milling process (cutter rotation axis is vertical) Milling is a cutting process that uses a milling cutter to remove material from the surface of a workpiece. The milling cutter is a rotary cutting tool, often with multiple cutting points.

The milling process removes material by performing many separate, small cuts. Turning. Roughing, or rough turning Parting aluminium Finish turning.


Belt grinding. Applications[edit] Belt grinding is a versatile process suitable for all kinds of different applications.

Belt grinding

There are three different applications of the belt grinding technology: Grinding methods[edit] Wide belt grinding is a familiar process in industry as well as home applications. There are several basic methods for belt grinding:[2] Friction drilling. The basic steps in the friction drilling process: 1.

Friction drilling

Tool 2. Heat 3. Screw thread tap Friction drilling is a method of making holes in metal in which the material is pushed out of the way with the aid of heat from friction. The process is also called thermal drilling, flow drilling, form drilling, or friction stir drilling.[1] Casting (metalworking) Casting iron in a sand mold Casting processes have been known for thousands of years, and widely used for sculpture, especially in bronze, jewellery in precious metals, and weapons and tools. Traditional techniques include lost-wax casting, plaster mold casting and sand casting. The modern casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting. It is further broken down by the mold material, such as sand or metal, and pouring method, such as gravity, vacuum, or low pressure.[2] Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand, plastic, shell, plaster, and investment (lost-wax technique) moldings.