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How Detroit went broke: The answers may surprise you — and don't blame Coleman Young. Originally published Sept. 15, 2013 Detroit is broke, but it didn’t have to be.

How Detroit went broke: The answers may surprise you — and don't blame Coleman Young

An in-depth Free Press analysis of the city’s financial history back to the 1950s shows that its elected officials and others charged with managing its finances repeatedly failed — or refused — to make the tough economic and political decisions that might have saved the city from financial ruin. Lack of skilled labor threatens manufacturing. Without immigrants, the US economy would be a 'disaster,' experts say. Immigrants across the U.S. are refusing to go to work, attend school and shop today as part of the Day Without Immigrants, a series of protests intended to illustrate the significant economic and social impact that immigrants have on the country.

Without immigrants, the US economy would be a 'disaster,' experts say

The protests, which were organized on social media, are demonstrations against President Donald Trump, who has been criticized by some as anti-immigrant and xenophobic for his promises to deport unauthorized immigrants, build a wall along the U.S. -Mexico border and conduct "extreme vetting" of immigrants from seven predominately Muslim countries. Hundreds of business owners in Washington, D.C.; Austin, Texas; Boston; Philadelphia; and other cities are participating in the protests. "I want to make sure that immigrants, such as myself and others, don’t live in fear," said Andy Shallal, an Iraqi-American entrepreneur best known for his D.C.

-area restaurant, bookstore and performance venue chain Busboys and Poets. Detroit’s Bankruptcy Reflects a History of Racism. This is black history month. It is also the month that the Emergency Manager who took political power and control from the mostly African American residents of Detroit has presented his plan to bring the city out of the bankruptcy he steered it into.

This is black history in the making, and I hope the nation will pay attention to who wins and who loses from the Emergency Manager’s plan. Black people are by far the largest racial or ethnic population in Detroit, which has the highest percentage of black residents of any American city with a population over 100,000. Eighty-three percent of the city’s 701,000 residents are black. 15 Drastic Effects of Population Decline - Serious Labor Shortage. Population Decline and the Great Economic Reversal - Stratfor Worldview. But there is no reason to think that GDP would fall along with population.

Population Decline and the Great Economic Reversal - Stratfor Worldview

The capital base of society, its productive plant as broadly understood, will not dissolve as population declines. Moreover, assume that population fell but GDP fell less — or even grew. Per capita GDP would rise and, by that measure, the population would be more prosperous than before. One of the key variables mitigating the problem of decreasing population would be continuing advances in technology to increase productivity. We can call this automation or robotics, but growths in individual working productivity have been occurring in all productive environments from the beginning of industrialization, and the rate of growth has been intensifying.

White Flight. Starting in the 1950s, many people living in New Orleans began moving to the suburbs – mostly white people.

White Flight

Research suggests that the reasons for this are many, and unfortunately, they are mostly based in racism. Many whites moved after desegregation to ensure that their children would not have to go to school with African Americans. And many whites felt that moving to all-white suburbs would help them to achieve higher social status among their peers who might look down on them for staying in the city.

Some historians claim that the movement of white people to the suburbs happened simply because more homes were being built in the suburbs, new highways like the I-10 loop made the suburbs more accessible, and whites, who historically have had higher incomes than African Americans, moved because they could afford to. Detroit’s white population rises. Detroit’s white population rose by nearly 8,000 residents last year, the first significant increase since 1950, according to a Detroit News analysis of U.S.

Detroit’s white population rises

Census Bureau data. The data, made public Wednesday, mark the first time census numbers have validated the perception that whites are returning to a city that is overwhelmingly black and one where the overall population continues to shrink. Many local leaders contend halting Detroit’s population loss is crucial, and the new census data shows that policies to lure people back to the city may be helping stem the city’s decline. “It verifies the energy you see in so many parts of Detroit and it’s great to hear,” said Kevin Boyle, a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and historian who studies the intersection of class, race, and politics in 20th-century America.

Eight Mile Wyoming, Detroit, MI Population & Demographics. Downsizing Cities - 95.10. In Cities Without Suburbs (1993), David Rusk, a former mayor of Albuquerque, convincingly demonstrates that those central cities that have expanded their limits to annex suburbs, or that have enough vacant land to accommodate suburban growth, do better than static cities in a number of significant ways.

Downsizing Cities - 95.10

The two Ohio metropolitan areas of Columbus and Cleveland serve as an example. Since 1950 the city of Columbus has been aggressively expanding, and now covers about 200 square miles; Cleveland's area -- seventy-seven square miles -- is almost unchanged. Although metro Cleveland is comparable in income level and racial composition to metro Columbus, and both metro areas have grown significantly in the past four decades, the present situation of the two cities is very different.

Cleveland has fallen behind Columbus in economic growth and job creation; it is more racially segregated; and it has a significantly lower per capita income, more poverty, and a lower municipal-bond rating. America's Changing Economic Landscape - 85.03. March 1985 Is the decline in the industrial belt a step into perilous new territory or is it merely a continuation of the ceaseless transformation that built our prosperity?

America's Changing Economic Landscape - 85.03

By James Fallows On the last day of 1980, when Jimmy Carter had been defeated and the question of further political damage to him was moot, a commission that Carter had appointed, called the President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties, issued a report, Urban America In the Eighties: Perspectives and Prospects. What is the relationship between economic growth and population growth? - Quora. The Racist Housing Policy That Made Your Neighborhood - The Atlantic. Before you read this post, read Ta-Nehisi's Coates powerful case for reparations, our cover story this month.

The Racist Housing Policy That Made Your Neighborhood - The Atlantic

In it, TNC (as he is known around here) relentlessly demonstrates the "compounding moral debts" of discriminatory practices, especially around housing. One of the most heinous of these policies was introduced by the creation of the Federal Housing Administration in 1934, and lasted until 1968. Otherwise celebrated for making homeownership accessible to white people by guaranteeing their loans, the FHA explicitly refused to back loans to black people or even other people who lived near black people. As TNC puts it, "Redlining destroyed the possibility of investment wherever black people lived. "