Inorganic chemistry - HCl synthesis from sulfuric acid and sodium salt - Chemistry Stack Exchange. Ideally, that's the reaction.
Realistically, there are a few speed bumps. First, it occurs stepwise, with the acid salt sodium bisulfate as an intermediate. The first stage happens at room temp between equal proportions of salt and sulfuric acid. The second stage requires temperatures of 200*C (in turn requiring water-free concentrations of acid and dry salt) and an additional equivalent of salt that reacts with the bisulfate. You did say you were using excess sulfuric acid; if true, you'll react all the salt but what'll be left in the flask is sodium bisulfate, not sodium sulfate. Second, if you have too much water in the reaction, the HCl won't bubble out; it'll happily sit in solution.
Following these steps and bubbling the gas produced through water, what you produce should definitely be hydrochloric acid. Beautiful Chemistry. Quantum Dot Technology Could Lead To Solar Panel Windows. Researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Milano-Bicocca have designed and synthesized a new generation of quantum dots for use in solar energy systems that overcome previous inefficiencies in harvesting sunlight.
The study has been published in the journal Nature Photonics. Quantum dots, which are nanocrystals made of semiconducting materials, appeal to scientists for use in solar photovoltaics (solar panel systems) because of their versatility and low-cost. In particular, they are desirable for use in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs), which are photon-management devices that serve as alternatives to optics-based solar concentration systems. LSCs are constructed from transparent materials containing emitters such as quantum dots. They concentrate solar radiation absorbed from a large area onto a significantly smaller solar cell, explains Victor Kilmov, one of the authors of the study. Compound Interest. Graphene - a 21st Century wonder discovery. Chemical Energetics - Exothermic and Endothermic.
Ammonium dichromate. Ammonium dichromate is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Cr2O7.
In this compound, as in all chromates and dichromates, chromium is in a +6 oxidation state, commonly known as hexavalent chromium. It is a salt consisting of ammonium ions and dichromate ions. Ammonium dichromate is sometimes known as Vesuvian Fire, because of its use in demonstrations of tabletop "volcanoes". It has been used in pyrotechnics and in the early days of photography. Properties At room temperature and pressure, the compound exists as orange, acidic crystals soluble in water and alcohol. The (NH4)2Cr2O7 crystal (C2/c, z=4) contains a single type of ammonium ion, at sites of symmetry C1(2,3).
Uses Photosensitive films containing PVA, ammonium dichromate, and a phosphor are spin-coated as aqueous slurries in the production of the phosphor raster of television screens and other devices.  Tabletop volcanoes and thermal decomposition  Safety Incidents References Burning Mercury Thiocyanide Will Amaze You. Underwater Sparkling Wine. Pharaoh's snake How to make Hot Ice!!! Crazy Scientific Tuesdays - Awesome milk trick! The Kaye Effect - Science - Science Funny Pictures, Funny Videos, Cool Videos. Wired Science . Video: Dr. Schrempp's Chem Lab. Retired Site The Wired Science site has been retired from pbs.org and is no longer available.
To find similar science and technology content on pbs.org, explore our Technology and Science & Nature topics areas. Or, try our keyword search or browse the Programs A-Z menu. Educators can find science-related, digital resources — videos, interactives, audio and photos — and in-depth lesson plans for the classroom at PBS Learning Media. Fans of the series can also visit the Wired magazine site at.