List of colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta. Jayakarta around 1605–8, before its complete eradication by the Dutch, showing earlier pre-colonial structures before Batavia was founded. Colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta include those that were constructed during the Dutch colonial period of Indonesia. The period (and the subsequent style) succeeded the earlier period when Jakarta (known then as Jayakarta/Jacatra), governed by the Sultanate of Banten, were completely eradicated and replaced with a walled city of Batavia. The dominant styles of the colonial period can be divided into three periods: the Dutch Golden Age (17th to late 18th century), the transitional style period (late 18th century – 19th century), and Dutch modernism (20th century).
Dutch colonial architecture in Jakarta is apparent in buildings such as houses or villas, churches, civic buildings, and offices, mostly concentrated in the administrative city of Central Jakarta and West Jakarta. Dutch East India Company period – 17th to late 18th century S M von Rothschild. Salomon Mayer von Rothschild S M von Rothschild was a banking enterprise established in 1820 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary by Salomon Mayer Rothschild, the founder of the Rothschild banking family of Austria and a member of the Mayer Amschel Rothschild family of Frankfurt, Germany.
The business prospered, financing various Austrian government undertakings where large amounts of capital had to be raised. The bank played a major role in the building of the country's economic infrastructure including the first rail transport networks. Passed down to Salomon Mayer Rothschild's male heirs, the bank would be run by Anselm von Rothschild (President: 1848–1874), Albert Salomon von Rothschild (President: 1874–1911), and Louis Nathaniel von Rothschild (President: 1911-1939).
The 13 March 1938 Anschluss of Austria to Nazi Germany marked the forced end of the Rothschild's business in Austria. Kristallnacht. ( German pronunciation: [kʁɪsˈtalˌnaχt] ), . Also referred to as the , or [ˌʁaɪçs.kʁɪsˈtalˌnaχt], [poˈgʁoːmˌnaχt], and [noˈvɛmbɐ.poˌgʁoːmə], was a pogrom (a series of coordinated attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary and civilians.
German authorities looked on without intervening. [ 1 ] The attacks left the streets covered with broken glass from the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues. [ 2 ] At least 91 Jews were killed in the attacks, and a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps . [ 2 ] Jewish homes, hospitals, and schools were ransacked, as the attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers. [ 3 ] Over 1,000 synagogues were burned (95 in Vienna alone), and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ edit ] Etymology [ edit ] Background [ edit ] Early Nazi persecutions [ edit ] Expulsion of Polish Jews in Germany [ edit ] The Holocaust. The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt") also known as Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"; Yiddish: חורבן, Churben or Hurban, from the Hebrew for "destruction"), was the mass murder or genocide of approximately six million Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, throughout the German Reich and German-occupied territories. Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds were killed. Over one million Jewish children were killed in the Holocaust, as were approximately two million Jewish women and three million Jewish men. A network of over 40,000 facilities in Germany and German-occupied territory were used to concentrate, hold, and kill Jews and other victims. The persecution and genocide were carried out in stages.
Etymology and use of the term Distinctive features Origins. The Mass Psychology of Fascism. Gestalt therapy. Gestalt therapy is an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist-client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation.
§Overview Edwin Nevis described Gestalt therapy as "a conceptual and methodological base from which helping professionals can craft their practice". In the same volume Joel Latner stated that Gestalt therapy is built upon two central ideas: that the most helpful focus of psychotherapy is the experiential present moment, and that everyone is caught in webs of relationships; thus, it is only possible to know ourselves against the background of our relationship to the other. The historical development of Gestalt therapy (described below) discloses the influences that generated these two ideas. §Experimental freedom Wildcat strike action. A wildcat strike action, often referred to as a wildcat strike, is a strike action undertaken by unionized workers without union leadership's authorization, support, or approval; this is sometimes termed, an unofficial industrial action. Wildcat strikes were the key pressure tactic utilized during the May 1968 protests in France.
By country Canada On March 23, 2012, Air Canada ground employees suddenly walked off the job at Toronto Pearson International Airport, resulting in many flight delays, after three workers were suspended for heckling Canadian Labour Minister Lisa Raitt. United States of America Wildcat strikes have been considered illegal in the United States since 1935. The 1932 Norris-La Guardia Act held that clauses in labor contracts barring employees from joining unions were not enforceable, thus granting employees the right to unionize regardless of their workplace situation.
Vietnam Notable wildcat strikes See also References Theresienstadt concentration camp. Coordinates : 50°30′48″N 14°10′1″E / 50.51333°N 14.16694°E / 50.51333; 14.16694 The (2005) , also referred to as Theresienstadt Ghetto, [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] was established by the SS during World War II in the fortress and garrison city of Terezín (German name ), located in what is now the Czech Republic.
During World War II it served as a Nazi concentration camp staffed in equal numbers by German Nazi guards and their ethnic Czech collaborators. Tens of thousands of Jews were murdered there and over 150,000 others (including tens of thousands of children) were held there for months or years, before then being sent to their deaths on rail transports to Treblinka and Auschwitz extermination camps in Poland, as well as to smaller camps elsewhere. [ edit ] History The fortress of Terezín was constructed between the years 1780 and 1790 by the orders of the Austrian emperor Joseph II in the north-west region of Bohemia. .
[ edit ] Command and control authority [ edit ] Used as propaganda tool. Auschwitz concentration camp. Auschwitz concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager Auschwitz [ˈʔaʊ̯ʃvɪt͡s] ( )) was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II. It consisted of Auschwitz I (the original camp), Auschwitz II–Birkenau (a combination concentration / extermination camp), Auschwitz III–Monowitz (a labor camp to staff an IG Farben factory), and 45 satellite camps. Auschwitz I was first constructed to hold Polish political prisoners, who began to arrive in May 1940. The first extermination of prisoners took place in September 1941, and Auschwitz II–Birkenau went on to become a major site of the Nazi "Final Solution to the Jewish question".
In the course of the war, the camp was staffed by 6,500 to 7,000 members of the German Schutzstaffel (SS), approximately 15 percent of whom were later convicted of war crimes. History Background In September 1935 the Nuremberg Laws were enacted. Auschwitz I. Dachau concentration camp. Dachau concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (9.9 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, ordinary German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded.
It was finally liberated in 1945. Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, floggings, the so-called tree or pole hanging, and standing at attention for extremely long periods. There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented. History General overview Main camp Internment. "Interned" redirects here. For the computer network, see Internet. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The Oxford English Dictionary (1989) gives the meaning as: "The action of 'interning'; confinement within the limits of a country or place.
" Most modern usage is about individuals, and there is a distinction between internment, which is being confined usually for preventive or political reasons, and imprisonment, which is being closely confined as a punishment for crime. [attribution needed] Internment also refers to the practice of neutral countries in time of war in detaining belligerent armed forces and equipment in their territories under the Hague Convention of 1907. Concentration camp Boer women and children in a British-run concentration camp in South Africa (1900-1902) Earliest usage and origins of the term Shift in meaning List of camps See also References External links Bełżec extermination camp. Between 430,000 and 500,000 Jews are believed to have been murdered by German Nazis at Bełżec, along with an unknown number of Poles and Romani people. Only seven Jews imprisoned at the camp have survived World War II; only one, or two known from their submitted testimonies. The small number of Holocaust survivors who could testify about it is the primary reason why this camp is so little known despite the enormous number of victims. Belzec mausoleum.
The field of crushed stone serves as one flat grave marker, because the entire perimeter contains human ashes mixed with sand. Rails in Belzec Portion of the memorial in Bełżec Belzec extermination camp memorial Belzec extermination camp museum Symbolic "death road" in Belzec memorial Portion of the memorial in Bełżec.
Portion of the memorial in Bełżec. Portion of the memorial in Bełżec. Camp construction and purposes Experience in the Action T4 euthanasia program Concealment of camp's purpose from victims Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Bergen-Belsen (or Belsen) was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. Originally established as a prisoner of war camp, in 1943, parts of it became a concentration camp. Initially this was an "exchange camp", where Jewish hostages were held with the intention of exchanging them for German prisoners of war held overseas. The camp was later expanded to accommodate Jews from other concentration camps.
After 1945, the name was applied to the displaced persons camp established nearby, but it is most commonly associated with the concentration camp. From 1941 to 1945, almost 20,000 Soviet prisoners of war and a further 50,000 inmates died there, with up to 35,000 of them dying of typhus in the first few months of 1945, shortly before and after the liberation. Operation Prisoner of war camp In the summer of 1943, Stalag XI-C (311) was dissolved and Bergen-Belsen became a branch camp of Stalag XI-B. Action T4. Reich Leader Bouhler and Dr. med. Brandt are charged with the responsibility of enlarging the competence of certain physicians, designated by name, so that patients who, on the basis of human judgment [menschlichem Ermessen], are considered incurable, can be granted mercy death [Gnadentod] after a discerning diagnosis. — Adolf Hitler  Various other rationales for the programme have been offered, including eugenics, natural selection, racial hygiene, cost effectiveness and welfare budget. Language Euthanasia (from Greek: εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. Hitler's directive to create the programme used the German term "Gnadentod" which translates to merciful death. Background The ideas of racial hygiene and social Darwinism were present in many western countries in the early 20th century.
Implementation Gassing Nazi concentration camps. Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (German: Konzentrationslager, or KZ) throughout the territories it controlled. The term was borrowed from the British concentration camps of the Second Anglo-Boer War. The first Nazi concentration camps were erected in Germany in March 1933 immediately after Hitler became Chancellor and his NSDAP was given control over the police through Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick and Prussian Acting Interior Minister Hermann Göring. Used to hold and torture political opponents and union organizers, the camps initially held around 45,000 prisoners. Heinrich Himmler's SS took full control of the police and concentration camps throughout Germany in 1934–35.
Himmler expanded the role of the camps to holding so-called "racially undesirable elements" of German society, such as Jews, criminals, homosexuals, and Romani people. The number of people in camps grew to 21,000 by the start of World War II. Pre-war camps World War II Internees Treatment Liberation. Vivienne Westwood. Dame Vivienne Westwood, DBE, RDI (born Vivienne Isabel Swire on 8 April 1941) is an English fashion designer and businesswoman, largely responsible for bringing modern punk and new wave fashions into the mainstream. Westwood came to public notice when she made clothes for Malcolm McLaren's boutique in the King's Road, which became famous as "SEX".
It was their ability to synthesise clothing and music that shaped the 1970s UK punk scene, dominated by McLaren's band, the Sex Pistols. She was deeply inspired by the shock-value of punk - "seeing if one could put a spoke in the system". Life and career Early life Aged 17 in 1958, Vivienne and her family moved to Harrow, London. In 1962, Vivienne Swire met Derek Westwood, a Hoover factory apprentice, in Harrow. They married on 21 July 1962 and Vivienne made her own wedding dress for the ceremony. In 1963, she gave birth to a son, Benjamin Westwood. Malcolm McLaren Punk era Vivienne Westwood company
Kim Beazley. Edmund Dudley. Thomas Moore. Battle of Bir Hakeim. Hughenden Manor. Imperial Tobacco. Lebanon.