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Stephen Hawking's big ideas ... made simple - video animation | Science. Jack Kerouac. Jean-Louis "Jack" Kérouac (/ˈkɛruːæk/ or /ˈkɛrɵæk/; March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation.[2] Kerouac is recognized for his method of spontaneous prose. Thematically, his work covers topics such as Catholic spirituality, jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel.

He became an underground celebrity and, with other beats, a progenitor of the hippie movement, although he remained antagonistic toward some of its politically radical elements.[3][4] Biography[edit] Early life and adolescence[edit] Jack Kerouac was born on 9 Lupine Road in the West Centralville section of Lowell Massachusetts, 2nd floor. Jack Kerouac was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, to French-Canadian parents, Léo-Alcide Kéroack and Gabrielle-Ange Lévesque, of St-Hubert-de-Rivière-du-Loup in the province of Quebec, Canada. Early adulthood[edit] Imperial Tobacco. Imperial Tobacco is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £24.3 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 19th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange.[5] History[edit] 1901 to 2000[edit] 2 ounces (57 g) tin for J&F Bell "Three Nuns" tobacco The Imperial Tobacco Company was created in 1901 through the amalgamation of thirteen British tobacco and cigarette companies: W.D.

& H.O. In 1902 the Imperial Tobacco Company and the American Tobacco Company agreed to form a joint venture: the British-American Tobacco Company Ltd.[6] The parent companies agreed not to trade in each other's domestic territory and to assign trademarks, export businesses and overseas subsidiaries to the joint venture. In 1985, the Company acquired the Peoples Drugstore chain and all subsidiaries from A. 2000 to present[edit] The Reemtsma head office in Hamburg, Germany Products[edit] Cigarettes[edit] Gauloises. Gauloises (pronounced: [ɡo.lwaz]) is a brand of cigarette of French manufacture. It is produced by the company Imperial Tobacco following their acquisition of Altadis in January 2008.

Cigarette[edit] Traditional Gauloises were short, wide, unfiltered and made with dark tobaccos from Syria and Turkey which produced a strong and distinctive aroma. Brand history[edit] Between the World Wars the smoking of Gauloises in France was considered patriotic and an affiliation with French "heartland" values. The brand was also linked to high-status and inspirational figures representing the worlds of art (e.g. American artist Robert Motherwell used Gauloises packets and cartons in many collages, including an extensive series with the packets surrounded by bright red acrylic paint, often with incised lines in the painted areas. John Frusciante, former guitarist of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, smoked Gauloises, as noted in the book Scar Tissue by friend and band-mate Anthony Kiedis. Legal issues[edit]

Category:Imperial Tobacco brands. Whig. Whig or Whigs may refer to: Parties and factions[edit] In the British Isles[edit] In the United States[edit] Other[edit] True Whig Party, also known as the "Liberian Whig Party", Liberia's overwhelmingly dominant political party from 1878 to 1980Confederate States Whig Party, a fictional political party created by alternate history author Harry Turtledove Music[edit] Newspapers[edit] Cecil Whig of Cecil County, Maryland, United StatesKingston Whig-Standard of Kingston, Ontario, Canada, originally named the British WhigBrownlow's Whig, an East Tennessee, USA, newspaper published under various titlesQuincy Herald-Whig of Quincy, Illinois, United States Other uses[edit] American Whig-Cliosophic Society, also known as "Whig-Clio", a political, literary, and debating society at Princeton UniversityWhite House Iraq Group, also known as the White House Information GroupWhig history, a theoretical approach among historians See also[edit]

Arlington National Cemetery. Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington County, Virginia, directly across the Potomac River from the Lincoln Memorial, is a United States military cemetery beneath whose 624 acres (253 ha) have been laid casualties, and deceased veterans, of the nation's conflicts beginning with the American Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. It was established during the Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, which had been the estate of the family of Confederate general Robert E.

Lee's wife Mary Anna (Custis) Lee (a great-granddaughter of Martha Washington). History[edit] George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of Martha Washington, acquired the land that now is Arlington National Cemetery in 1802, and began construction of Arlington House. The estate passed to Custis' daughter, Mary Anna, who had married United States Army officer Robert E. Lee. Custis Lee Mansion with Union soldiers on lawn Arlington National Cemetery Recent expansion[edit] Sections[edit] Slavery in the United States. Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of chattel slavery that existed in the United States of America in the 17th to 19th centuries. Slavery had been practiced in British North America from early colonial days, and was recognized in the Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

When the United States was founded, even though some free persons of color were present, the status of slave was largely limited to those of African descent, creating a system and legacy in which race played an influential role. After the Revolutionary War, abolitionist sentiment gradually spread in the Northern states, while the rapid expansion of the cotton industry from 1800 led to the Southern states strongly identifying with slavery, and attempting to extend it into the new Western territories. The United States was polarized by slavery into slave and free states along the Mason-Dixon Line, which separated Maryland (slave) and Pennsylvania (free). Utrecht. Utrecht (/ˈjuːtrɛkt/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈytrɛxt] ( Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university of the Netherlands, as well as several other institutes for higher education. Due to its central position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport.

It has the second highest number of cultural events in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam.[8] History[edit] Origins (until 650)[edit] Many of the features in Blaeu's 1652 map of Utrecht can still be recognised in the city center In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was simply Traiectum denoting its location at a possibility to cross the Rhine. From the middle of the 3rd century Germanic tribes regularly invaded the Roman territories. Centre of Christianity in the Netherlands (650–1579)[edit] The Dom tower, with to the left behind it the remaining section of the Dom church. By the mid-7th century, English and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. Geography[edit] Amsterdam. Amsterdam (English /ˈæmstərdæm/; Dutch: [ˌʔɑmstərˈdɑm]) is the capital city and most populous city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Its status as the Dutch capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands[7] though it is not the seat of the Dutch government, which is The Hague.[8] Amsterdam has a population of 813,562 within the city proper, 1,112,165 in the urban region and 1,575,263 in the greater metropolitan area.[9] The city region has a population of 2,332,773.[10] The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. It comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million.[11] Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme,[12] indicative of the city's origin as a dam of the river Amstel. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. §History[edit] §Etymology[edit] A woodcut depicting Amsterdam as of 1544. Rotterdam Blitz.

The Rotterdam Blitz was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe (German air force) on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II. The objective was to support the German troops fighting in the city, break Dutch resistance and force the Dutch to surrender. Even though preceding negotiations resulted in a ceasefire, the bombardment took place nonetheless, in conditions which remain controversial, and destroyed almost the entire historic city centre, killing nearly nine hundred civilians and leaving 30,000 people homeless. [contradiction] The psychological and physical success of the raid, from the German perspective, led the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL) to threaten to destroy the city of Utrecht if the Dutch Government did not surrender. The Dutch capitulated early the next morning. Prelude[edit] The Wehrmacht finally attacked the Netherlands in the early hours of 10 May 1940.

Battle for Rotterdam[edit] The bombing[edit] Aftermath[edit] Helvetic Republic. In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then consisted mainly of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance, and conquered territories such as Vaud. Its name was taken from the Helvetian people. The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the "Helvetic Republic. " The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernizing reforms took place.[1][2] Resistance was strongest in the more traditional Catholic bastions, with armed uprisings breaking out in spring 1798 in the central part of Switzerland.

The French Army suppressed the uprisings but support for revolutionary ideals steadily declined, as the Swiss resented their loss of local democracy, the new taxes, the centralization, and the hostility to religion. Nonetheless there were long-term impacts.[3] History[edit] Strategic situation of Europe in 1796. Great Chicago Fire. Artist's rendering of the fire, by John R. Chapin, originally printed in Harper's Weekly; the view faces northeast across the Randolph Street Bridge.

The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday, October 8, to early Tuesday, October 10, 1871. The fire killed up to 300 people, destroyed roughly 3.3 square miles (9 km2) of Chicago, Illinois, and left more than 100,000 residents homeless.[1] Though the fire was one of the largest U.S. disasters of the 19th century, and destroyed much of the city's central business district, Chicago was rebuilt and continued to grow as one of the most populous and economically important American cities.

Origin[edit] 1868 map of Chicago, highlighting the area destroyed by the fire (location of O'Leary's barn indicated by red dot). Spread of the blaze[edit] Aftermath of the fire, corner of Dearborn and Monroe Streets, 1871 Chicago Water Tower With the fire across the river and moving rapidly towards the heart of the city, panic set in. St. Panic of 1873. The Panic of 1873 and the subsequent depression had several underlying causes, of which economic historians debate the relative importance. Post-war inflation, rampant speculative investments (overwhelmingly in railroads), a large trade deficit, ripples from economic dislocation in Europe resulting from the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), property losses in the Chicago (1871) and Boston (1872) fires, and other factors put a massive strain on bank reserves, which plummeted in New York City during September and October 1873 from $50 million to $17 million.

The first symptoms of the crisis were financial failures in the Austro-Hungarian capital, Vienna, which spread to most of Europe and North America by 1873. Factors in the U.S. [edit] Coinage Act of 1873[edit] Jay Cooke & Company fails[edit] In September 1873, Jay Cooke & Company, a major component of the United States banking establishment, found itself unable to market several million dollars in Northern Pacific Railway bonds. Europe[edit] John D. Rockefeller. John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American business magnate and philanthropist. He was a co-founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry, and along with other key contemporary industrialists such as Andrew Carnegie, defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

In 1870, he co-founded Standard Oil Company and actively ran it until he officially retired in 1897.[1] Rockefeller spent the last 40 years of his life in retirement at his estate, Kykuit, in Westchester County, New York. Rockefeller was also the founder of both the University of Chicago and Rockefeller University and funded the establishment of Central Philippine University in the Philippines. Early life Eliza, a homemaker and devout Baptist, struggled to maintain a semblance of stability at home, as Bill was frequently gone for extended periods. Rockefeller at age 18, ca. 1857. Leland Stanford. Biography[edit] Early years[edit] Career and politics[edit] The area where he practiced law, now known as the Port Washington Downtown Historic District, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[8] Marriage and family[edit] On September 30, 1850, Stanford married Jane Elizabeth Lathrop in Albany.

Businesses[edit] In 1852, having lost his law library and other property to a fire, Stanford followed his five brothers to California during the California Gold Rush. Pacific Railroad Bond, City and County of San Francisco, 1865 In 1861, Stanford was nominated again (his first run was in 1859) to run for governor of California, and this time he was elected.

In May 1868, he joined Lloyd Tevis, Darius Ogden Mills, H.D. While the Central Pacific was under construction, Stanford and his associates in 1868 acquired control of the Southern Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific Company was organized in 1884 as a holding company for the Central Pacific-Southern Pacific system. Residences[edit] Garuda. In Hinduism[edit] Garuda is known as the eternal sworn enemy of the Nāga serpent race and known for feeding exclusively on snakes, such behavior may have referred to the actual Short-toed Eagle of India. The image of Garuda is often used as the charm or amulet to protect the bearer from snake attack and its poison, since the king of birds is an implacable enemy and "devourer of serpent". Garudi Vidya is the mantra against snake poison to remove all kinds of evil.[3] His stature in Hindu religion can be gauged by the fact that an independent Upanishad, the Garudopanishad, and a Purana, the Garuda Purana, is devoted to him.

In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 30), in the middle of the battlefield "Kurukshetra", Krishna explaining his omnipresence, says - " as son of Vinata, I am in the form of Garuda, the king of the bird community (Garuda)" indicating the importance of Garuda. Garuda wears the serpent Adisesha on his left wrist and the serpent Gulika on his right wrist. Garuda, Belur, India. Kublai Khan. Qing dynasty. Desiderius Erasmus. Empress Dowager Cixi. Thought experiment. Schrödinger's cat. Maxwell's demon. Rotterdam Blitz. Switzerland. Thomas More. Panchen Lama. Lama. Puyi. Kalki. Arjuna. Mahabharata. Avatar. Schönbrunn Palace. Xinhai Revolution. Guangzhou. Beijing. Shanghai. Auckland. Native Americans in the United States. We have to recognise the huge value of arts and culture to society | Culture | The Observer.

Battle of Tannenberg. Battle of Moscow. Heinrich Himmler. Führerbunker. Alfred Jodl. Wilhelm Keitel. First Austrian Republic. Bullenhuser Damm. Neuengamme concentration camp. Germany. Hamburg. Weimar Republic. Tennessee Williams. Boogie Nights (1997. Antibes. Artie Shaw. Douglas Fairbanks. Jayne Mansfield. Ann Sheridan. Priory Hospital. Pahlavi dynasty. BP. Benito Mussolini. Cossacks. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Lambeth Palace. Palace of Westminster. Christopher Marlowe. Howard Hughes.

Leopold III of Belgium. Zeppo Marx. Polemic. Napoleon Hill. House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Empress Elisabeth of Austria. Albert I of Belgium. Cerberus. Ava Gardner. Ingenue. Marx Brothers. Jean Paul Gaultier. Willys. Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health. Mughal Empire. Rajput. James Cook. HMS Endeavour. RAND Corporation. Robert Redford. Paul Newman. Seinfeld. Autobahn. Tel Aviv. New York City. Old Parliament House, Canberra.

Rio de Janeiro Photos -- National Geographic's Ultimate City Guides. Protests of 1968. Pandora.