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Cognitive behavioral therapy ( CBT ) is a psychotherapeutic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors and cognitive processes and contents through a number of goal-oriented, explicit systematic procedures. The name refers to behavior therapy , cognitive therapy , and to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive principles and research. Most therapists working with patients dealing with anxiety and depression use a blend of cognitive and behavioral therapy.
Hipster or hepcat , as used in the 1940s, referred to aficionados of jazz , in particular bebop , which became popular in the early 1940s. The hipster adopted the lifestyle of the jazz musician, including some or all of the following: dress, slang, use of cannabis and other drugs, relaxed attitude, sarcastic humor, self-imposed poverty and relaxed sexual codes. [ edit ] History
Happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being characterized by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. [ 1 ] A variety of biological , psychological , religious , and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its sources. Various research groups, including positive psychology , endeavor to apply the scientific method to answer questions about what "happiness" is, and how it might be attained. It's of such fundamental importance to the human condition that Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness were deemed unalienable rights on the United States Declaration of Independence .
Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homine , 1662. Reductionism can mean either (a) an approach to understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts, or to simpler or more fundamental things or (b) a philosophical position that a complex system is nothing but the sum of its parts, and that an account of it can be reduced to accounts of individual constituents. [ 1 ] This can be said of objects , phenomena , explanation , theories , and meanings. [ 2 ] Reductionism strongly reflects a certain perspective on causality . In a reductionist framework, phenomena that can be explained completely in terms of relations between other more fundamental phenomena, are called epiphenomena . Often there is an implication that the epiphenomenon exerts no causal agency on the fundamental phenomena that explain it.
In religion , transcendence refers to the aspect of God's nature and power which is wholly independent of (and removed from) the material universe. This is contrasted with immanence where God is fully present in the physical world and thus accessible to creatures in various ways. In religious experience transcendence is a state of being that has overcome the limitations of physical existence and by some definitions has also become independent of it.
Backbiting or tale-bearing is to slander someone in their absence — to bite them behind their back. Originally, backbiting referred to an unsporting attack from the rear in the blood sport of bearbaiting . [ 1 ] In the Baha'i Faith , Christian and Islamic doctrine , backbiting is considered a sin . The Baha'i leaders condemned it as the worst of sins as it destroyed the 'life of the soul' and provoked divine wrath . [ 2 ] Thomas Aquinas classified it as a venial sin , being commonly found in all mankind, but considered it to be the gravest sin that one could commit against one's neighbour. [ 3 ] Islam considers it to be a major sin and the Qur'an compares it to the abhorrent act of eating the flesh of one's dead brother. [ 4 ] In Buddhism , backbiting goes against the ideal of right speech . [ 5 ] [ edit ] Causes Backbiting may occur as a form of release after a confrontation.
At the Institute for the Future 's 2011 Ten Year Forecast event in late March, I presented a long talk on ways in which evolutionary and ecological metaphors could inform our understanding of systemic change. The head of the Ten Year Forecast team, IFTF Distinguished Fellow Kathi Vian, thought that the ideas it contained should get a wider viewing, and asked me to put the talk on my blog. Here it is. It's lightly edited, and only contains a fraction of the slides I used; let me know what you think. We’ve now reached the part of the day where I’ve been asked to make your brains hurt. Don’t worry, there will be alcohol afterwards.
Or how computer geeks can enable the electric car, save the planet and millions of lives using near-term A.I. to make taxis and trucks deliver, park, recharge and drive themselves. For the lastest news and updates , check out my Robocars Blog . People have dreamed of cars that drive themselves for decades. Now, thanks to a contest sponsored by the U.S. military and further work by companies like Google, Volkwagon and Volvo, they are much closer to becoming reality than many people realize. It now feels possible to make the bold prediction that if we, as a society truly will it , we can make them popular by around 2020.
by Douglas R. Conant | 10:19 AM April 4, 2011 Every time I've taken a Meyers-Briggs test, I score high on the introversion scale.
The execution van , also called a mobile execution unit , was developed by the government of the People's Republic of China and were first used in 1997. There is evidence that mobile execution chambers existed before 1997: the state of Delaware in the United States of America purchased a mobile lethal-injection chamber in 1986. [ 1 ] The prisoner is strapped to a stretcher and killed inside the van. The van allows death sentences to be carried out without moving the prisoner to an execution ground. The vans also require less manpower per execution, requiring four persons to assist with the injection. [ 2 ] The PRC states that the vans are more humane than previous forms of execution.
A graph of the incarceration rate under state and federal jurisdiction per 100,000 population 1925-2008 (omits local jail inmates). The male incarceration rate ( top line ) is ~15 times the female rate ( bottom line ). The incarceration rate in the United States of America is the highest in the world. As of 2009 [update] , the incarceration rate was 743 per 100,000 of national population (0.743%). [ 2 ] In comparison, Russia had the second highest, at 577 per 100,000, Canada was 123rd in the world at 117 per 100,000, and China had 120 per 100,000. [ 2 ] While Americans represent about 5 percent of the world's population, nearly one-quarter of the entire world's inmates have been incarcerated in the United States in recent years. [ 3 ] Imprisonment of America's 2.3 million prisoners, costing $24,000 per inmate per year, and $5.1 billion in new prison construction, consumes $60.3 billion in budget expenditures.
Dominance hierarchy arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system. In social living groups, members are likely to compete for access to limited resources and mating opportunities . Rather than fight each time they meet, relative relationships are formed between members of the same sex. These repetitive interactions lead to the creation of a social order that is subject to change each time a dominant animal is challenged by a subordinate one. [ edit ] Systems
The Two-Factor Model of Personality is a widely used psychological factor analysis measurement of personality , behavior and temperament . It most often consists of a matrix measuring the factor of introversion and extroversion with some form of people versus task orientation. [ edit ] Beginnings Anciently, Galen mapped the Four Temperaments to a matrix of hot/cold and dry/wet taken from the Four Elements . [ 1 ] Eventually, it was observed: The sanguine temperament showed quick, impulsive and relatively brief reactions. (hot/wet; air) The phlegmatic temperament was characterized by a longer response-delay, but the response was also short-lived.
The Hartman Personality Profile also known as The Color Code or The People Code , created by Dr. Taylor Hartman , divides personalities into four colors: Red ( motivated by power ), Blue (motivated by intimacy ), White (motivated by peace ), and Yellow (motivated by fun ). Although different groups of people have different demographics , the general breakdown suggests that Reds comprise 25% of the population ; Blues 35%; Whites 20%; and Yellows 20%. [ 1 ] A 45-question test assesses one's color. [ edit ] Classifying the Motive Types The main idea behind the Hartman Personality Profile is that all people possess one of four driving "core motives." [ 2 ] The driving core motives are classified into four colors: Red, motivated by power; Blue, motivated by intimacy; White, motivated by peace; and Yellow, motivated by fun. [ 3 ] Hartman believes the system is simple and at the same time profound.
4 humours in respective order: choleric, melancholic, sanguine, and phlegmatic. Four temperaments is a proto- psychological interpretation of the ancient medical concept of humorism and suggests that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviors . The temperaments are sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable), choleric (ambitious and leader-like), melancholic (introverted and thoughtful), and phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet). The Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 BC) incorporated the four temperaments into his medical theories. From then through modern times, they, or modifications of them, have been part of many theories of medicine, psychology and literature. [ edit ] History and development