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Many cognitive biases have been demonstrated by research in psychology and behavioral economics . These are systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment. Although the reality of these biases is confirmed by replicable research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. [ 1 ] Some are effects of information-processing rules, called heuristics , that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. These are called cognitive biases . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Biases in judgment or decision-making can also result from motivation , such as when beliefs are distorted by wishful thinking . Some biases have a variety of cognitive ("cold") or motivational ("hot") explanations.
Yes, you too can see through the defenses people hide behind. To guide you, just consult the handy primer below. Put together by psychiatrist Emanuel H. Rosen, it distills years of Freudian analytical training into a few simple principles that make sense of our psyches. I have always thought it horribly unfortunate that there is such a tremendous gap between psychiatry and popular culture. Psychiatrists are regularly vilified in entertainment, media, and common thought, and our patients are regularly stigmatized.
The Rosenhan experiment was a famous experiment into the validity of psychiatric diagnosis , conducted by psychologist David Rosenhan and published by the journal Science in 1973 under the title " On being sane in insane places ". [ 1 ] The study is considered an important and influential criticism of psychiatric diagnosis. [ 2 ] Rosenhan's study was done in two parts. The first part involved the use of healthy associates or "pseudopatients" (three women and five men) who briefly simulated auditory hallucinations in an attempt to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals in five different States in various locations in the United States . All were admitted and diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. After admission, the pseudopatients acted normally and told staff that they felt fine and had not experienced any more hallucinations. All were forced to admit to having a mental illness and agree to take antipsychotic drugs as a condition of their release.
The end of 2010 fast approaches, and I'm thrilled to have been asked by the editors of Psychology Today to write about the Top 10 psychology studies of the year. I've focused on studies that I personally feel stand out, not only as examples of great science, but even more importantly, as examples of how the science of psychology can improve our lives. Each study has a clear "take home" message, offering the reader an insight or a simple strategy they can use to reach their goals , strengthen their relationships, make better decisions, or become happier.