DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE AND TOTAL SOLIDS. 3. Determination of Moisture and Total Solids 3.1 Introduction Moisture content is one of the most commonly measured properties of food materials. It is important to food scientists for a number of different reasons: Legal and Labeling Requirements. There are legal limits to the maximum or minimum amount of water that must be present in certain types of food.
Economic. It is therefore important for food scientists to be able to reliably measure moisture contents. 3.2 Properties of Water in Foods The moisture content of a food material is defined through the following equation: %Moisture = (mw/msample) 100 Where mw is the mass of the water and msample is the mass of the sample. An appreciation of the principles, advantages and limitations of the various analytical techniques developed to determine the moisture content of foods depends on an understanding of the molecular characteristics of water.
Bulk water. 3.3. 3.4. 3.4.1. Thus, %Total solids = (100 - %Moisture). 3.4.2. Vacuum oven. 3.5. 6. ANALYSIS OF PROTEINS. 6. Analysis of Proteins 6.1 Introduction Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Twenty different types of amino acids occur naturally in proteins. Proteins differ from each other according to the type, number and sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide backbone. As a result they have different molecular structures, nutritional attributes and physiochemical properties. 6.2. 6.2.1. The Kjeldahl method was developed in 1883 by a brewer called Johann Kjeldahl. 188.8.131.52. Digestion The food sample to be analyzed is weighed into a digestion flask and then digested by heating it in the presence of sulfuric acid (an oxidizing agent which digests the food), anhydrous sodium sulfate (to speed up the reaction by raising the boiling point) and a catalyst, such as copper, selenium, titanium, or mercury (to speed up the reaction).
N(food) ® (NH4)2SO4 (1) Neutralization After the digestion has been completed the digestion flask is connected to a recieving flask by a tube. Titration 184.108.40.206. 6.3. Full text of "AOAC: Official Methods of Analysis (Volume 1)" The use of enzymes in detergents. Enzyme Technology The use of enzymes in detergent formulations is now common in developed countries, with over half of all detergents presently available containing enzymes. In spite of the fact that the detergent industry is the largest single market for enzymes at 25 - 30% of total sales. details of the enzymes used and the ways in which they are used, have rarely been published. Dirt comes in many forms and includes proteins, starches and lipids. In addition, clothes that have been starched must be freed of the starch.
Using detergents in water at high temperatures and with vigorous mixing, it is possible to remove most types of dirt but the cost of heating the water is high and lengthy mixing or beating will shorten the life of clothing and other materials. The use of enzymes allows lower temperatures to be employed and shorter periods of agitation are needed, often after a preliminary period of soaking. Detergent enzymes must be cost-effective and safe to use. Home | Back | Next. Soaps & Detergents: Manufacturing | Clean Living | American Cleaning Institute. Soaps & Detergents: Manufacturing Soap and detergent manufacturing consists of a broad range of processing and packaging operations. The size and complexity of these operations vary from small plants employing a few people to those with several hundred workers. Products range from large-volume types like laundry detergents that are used on a regular basis to lower-volume specialties for less frequent cleaning needs.
Cleaning products come in three principal forms: bars, powders and liquids. Let's start by looking at bar soap manufacturing and then we'll review the processes used to make powder and liquid detergents. Traditional bar soaps are made from fats and oils or their fatty acids which are reacted with inorganic water-soluble bases. Soap was made by the batch kettle boiling method until shortly after World War II, when continuous processes were developed. Both continuous and batch processes produce soap in liquid form, called neat soap, and a valuable by-product, glycerine (1). Different Types of Fermentation: The Difference Between Wild Fermentation and Lactofermentation. We’ve been talking to a lot of people who want to try preserving (or different types of preserving) lately and have found there are a few reasons that motivated people (i.e. people that want to try it) stay away: fear and confusion.
We hope that sharing what we do will help people overcome the fear but realize that there are times that we’ve missed explaining some of the basics that really confused us (and still do from time to time) will help. One of my all-time biggest confusions was around words that seemed dreadfully similar: FermentingWild FermentingNatural FermentingFermenting with a starterLactofermenting There were other such terms but you get the basic idea. The confusion is common and understandable. So let’s start with a basic definition of ‘fermentation’: “A chemical reaction in which a ferment causes an organic molecule to split into simpler substances” (source) There are ultimately two types of fermentation: those using a starter and those which do not. Evaluation and Optimization of Critical Control Points in the Production of Iru. Introduction Fermented foodstuffs and condiments are very popular in Nigeria. Prominent among the soup condiments is iru, a fermented vegetable protein from locust bean seeds (Parkia biglobosa).
In many cases, fermentation is responsible for the development of taste or aroma, improved digestibility, improvement of nutritional composition, stabilization of the original raw materials and detoxification of anti-nutrient factors in these products. In the case of locust beans, the seeds are not consumed in their un-fermented state. Because of its popularity and role in improving protein intake of many low income earners, a lot of research has been done on iru (Odunfa, 1981; Antai and Ibrahim, 1986; Odunfa and Komolafe, 1989; Aderibigbe and Odunfa, 1990; Allagheny et al., 1996; Olasupo et al., 1996; Beaumont, 2002).
These reports include investigations into the conditions of processing iru and its nutritional properties. Materials and Methods Results Discussion. ANALYSIS OF ASH AND MINERALS. 4. Analysis of Ash and Minerals 4.1 Introduction The ash content is a measure of the total amount of minerals present within a food, whereas the mineral content is a measure of the amount of specific inorganic components present within a food, such as Ca, Na, K and Cl. Determination of the ash and mineral content of foods is important for a number of reasons: Nutritional labeling. The concentration and type of minerals present must often be stipulated on the label of a food. Quality. 4.2. Ash is the inorganic residue remaining after the water and organic matter have been removed by heating in the presence of oxidizing agents, which provides a measure of the total amount of minerals within a food. 4.2.1.
As with all food analysis procedures it is crucial to carefully select a sample whose composition represents that of the food being analyzed and to ensure that its composition does not change significantly prior to analysis. 4.2.2. 4.2.3. 4.2.4. 4.2.5. 4.2.6. 4.3. 4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3. FOOD SCIENCE: Ash content in food. Ash or mineral content is the portion of the food or any organic material that remains after it is burned at very high temperatures. The ash constituents include potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium, which are present in larger amounts as well as smaller quantities of aluminum, iron, copper, manganese or zinc, arsenic, iodine, fluorine and other elements present in traces. Ash content represents the total mineral content in foods. Although minerals represent a small proportion of dry matter, often less than 7% of the total, they play an important role from a physicochemical, technological and nutritional point of view.
Determining the ash content may be important for several reasons. It is part of proximate analysis for nutritional evaluation. The ash content of most fresh foods rarely is greater than 5%. Ash content is a widely accepted index of refinement of foods, such as wheat flour or sugar. FOOD SCIENCE: Crude Fiber. Crude fiber is a measure of the quantity of indigestible cellulose, pentosans, lignin, and other components of this type in present foods. It is the residue of plant materials remaining after solvent extraction followed by digestion with dilute acid and alkali. These components have little food value but provide the bulk necessary for proper peristaltic action in the intestinal tract.
A determination of crude fiber is used in evaluation the efficiency of milling and separating bran from the starchy endosperm. Crude fiber is also useful in the chemical determination of succulence of fresh vegetables and fruits; over mature products have increased levels of crude fiber. Today’s accepted term for fiber is dietary fiber, but this term has only been in use since late 1970s. Recent research into the roles of dietary fiber components has caused reevaluation of some of the traditional concepts concerning fiber. FOOD SCIENCE: Crude Fiber. Crude Fiber. Crude%20Fat%20Determination%20-%20Soxhlet%20Method%20-%201998.
Locust beans: Nutritious and medicinal | Daily Independent Newspapers. •Locust beans By Oladele Ogunsola In the South East, you get ogiri (sometimes made from fermented pumpkin seed); in the South West, have iru; and in the North, you have dawadawa. Whichever region of Nigeria you go, you are sure to get a nutritional and medicinal seasoning. Locust bean, commonly referred to as iru, is a local seasoning used in soups and stews. Before the advent of modern seasonings like bullion cubes, it was such a condiment that could not be done without. The product is obtainable from a perennial tree legume which plays an important part in traditional agriculture, but has not entered commercial trade to any significant extent. A nutritionist and a staffer of Oyo State Ministry of Health, simply identified as Mrs. Insisting that the tree is not only popular in Africa or Yorubaland, as the case may be, she disclosed that “in Malaysia and Indonesia, the whole foods, including seeds of parkia speciosa are eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable known as ‘petal’.
Nutritional composition of the African locust bean ( Parkia biglobosa ) fruit pulp | Gernmah | Nigerian Food Journal. Food science. This is the old United Nations University website. Visit the new site at Fermented foods and cottage industries in Nigeria Effects of a brief, intense infrared radiation treatment on the nutritional quality of maize, rice, sorghum, and beans Stability of iodine in iodized salt used for correction of iodine-deficiency disorders Fermented foods and cottage industries in Nigeria Abstract Introduction Fermented foods of Nigeria Development of fermented foods in Nigeria Finished product development Research and development Acknowledgements References G. Abstract Fermentation contributes significantly to food technological processes in developing countries such as Nigeria.
Introduction Fermentation processes play important roles in food technology in developing countries. Fermented foods of Nigeria The fermented foods in Nigeria can be classified into groups according to the substrates or raw materials employed . Development of fermented foods in Nigeria TABLE 1. TABLE 2. FIG. 1. Full text | Controlled fermentation and preservation of UGBA ¿an indigenous Nigerian fermented food. Effects of Fermentation on Nutrient Enrichment of Locust Beans (<I>Parkia biglobosa</I>, Robert bam) The genus Parkia to which the locust beans belong is large in the family leguminoseceae. The pods are flat, large, irregular clusters from which the locust bean seeds are obtained (Omafuvbe et al., 2004) The species of the genus include Parkia filicoidea, Parkia biglobosa, Parkia bicolor and Parkia clappertoniana.
The seeds of P. biglobosa and P. filicoidea had been successfully fermented for the production of food condiments in seasoning foods in Nigeria and other West African countries. The locust bean tree is planted mainly because the fruit is rich and provides valuable protein in the dry season (Odunfa, 1986). It is also used for medicinal purposes and as a source of mouth wash to relieve toothache. The bean husk (seed coat) are used with indigo dye to improve the luster of fabrics while the tree bark yield a red tannin for dying leather. Thus the objective of this research is to examine the possibility of enhancing the organoleptic quality and diversify the uses of the seeds.
DSpace at My Futa: NUTRITIVE VALUE AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CONDIMENTS PRODUCED FROM AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN (PARKIA BIGLOBOSA) Processing and fermentation of the african locust bean (Parkia filicoidea Welw.) to produce dawadawa - Ikenebomeh - 2006 - Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Evaluation of Biochemical Deterioration of Locust Bean Daddawa and Soybean Daddawa-Two Nigerian Condiments. Base Record. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds | Frontiers in Food Microbiology.
Introduction Fermented vegetable protein seeds used for condiments production in West Africa include African locust bean [Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth)], melon seeds [Citrullus vulgaris (Schrad)], castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis), fluted pumpkin seeds (Telfaria occidentale), African yam bean (Stenophylis stenocarpa), cotton seeds [Gossypium hirsitium (L.)], roselle seeds (Hibiscus sabdariffa), and baobab seeds [Adansonia digitata (L.)] (Odunfa and Oyewole, 1998; Ouoba et al., 2008; Parkouda et al., 2010). Condiments constitute a significant proportion of African diets where they serve as flavorsome and culinary components in various dishes (Achi, 2005).
They include iru or dawadawa in Nigeria and Ghana; soumbala, bikalga, and maari in Burkina Faso; afitin and sonru in Benin Republic; nététou in Senegal; kinda in Sierra Leone; dawadawa botso in Niger Republic; datou in Mali; mbuja in Cameroon and furundu in Sudan (N'Dir et al., 1994; Ouoba et al., 2008, 2010; Parkouda et al., 2010). 2.Biodiversity of Aerobic Endospore-Forming Bacterial Species Occurring.
Fermentation in food processing. Fermentation in food processing is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desirable. The science of fermentation is also known as zymology or zymurgy. The term "fermentation" is sometimes used to specifically refer to the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol, a process which is used to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and cider. Fermentation is also employed in the leavening of bread (CO2 produced by yeast activity); in preservation techniques to produce lactic acid in sour foods such as sauerkraut, dry sausages, kimchi, and yogurt; and in pickling of foods with vinegar (acetic acid).
French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first known zymologist, when in 1856 he connected yeast to fermentation. Pasteur originally defined fermentation as "respiration without air". Uses Untitled Document. Fermentation. Fermentation in progress: Impurities formed by CO2 gas bubbles and fermenting material. Overview of ethanol fermentation.
One glucose molecule breaks down into two pyruvates (1). The energy from this exothermic reaction is used to bind inorganic phosphates to ADP and convert NAD+ to NADH. The two pyruvates are then broken down into two Acetaldehyde and give off two CO2 as a waste product (2). The two Acetaldehydes are then converted to two ethanol by using the H+ ions from NADH; converting NADH back into NAD+ (3). Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. Fermentation takes place in the absence of oxygen (when the electron transport chain is unusable) and becomes the cell’s primary means of ATP (energy) production. It turns NADH and pyruvate produced in the glycolysis step into NAD+ and various small molecules (see examples below). The first step, glycolysis, is common to all fermentation pathways: Pyruvate is CH3COCOO−.