Bill Gold. Bill Gold (born January 3, 1921) is a former American graphic designer best known for thousands of film poster designs. His first film poster was for Yankee Doodle Dandy (1941), and his most recent work was for J. Edgar (2011). Early career Bill Gold was born on January 3, 1921, in New York City. He studied illustration and design at Pratt Institute in New York. He began his professional design career in 1941, in the advertising department of Warner Bros.. Bill Gold Advertising In 1962, Bill Gold created Bill Gold Advertising in New York City. Bill Gold is currently an active member of the Society of Illustrators, the Art Directors Club and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Film posters Gold's US theatrical release poster for Casablanca (1942) Gold's original theatrical release poster for A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) Gold's theatrical release poster for My Fair Lady, with original illustration by Bob Peak (1964) 1940s 1950s 1960s
Industrial design. An iPod, an industrially designed product. KitchenAid 5 qt. Stand Mixer, designed in 1937 by Egmont Arens, remains very successful today Western Electric Model 302 telephone, found throughout the United States from 1937 until the introduction of touch-tone dialing. Calculator Olivetti Divisumma 24 designed in 1956 by Marcello Nizzoli All industrial products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team; it can emphasise intuitive creativity or calculated scientific decision-making; and it can be influenced by factors as varied as materials, production processes, business strategy and prevailing social, commercial or aesthetic attitudes.
The role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, marketing, brand development, and sales. History Precursors Birth of industrial design Education Notes Vox-ATypI classification. In typography, the Vox-ATypI classification makes it possible to classify typefaces in eleven general classes. Devised by Maximilien Vox in 1954, it was adopted in 1962 by the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI) and in 1967 as a British Standard, as British Standards Classification of Typefaces (BS 2961:1967), which is a very basic interpretation of the earlier Vox-ATypI classification. Originally a ten-part classification, Vox revised his original proposal within months to a more compact nine-part scheme. This classification tends to group typefaces according to their main characteristics, often typical of a particular century (15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century), based on a number of formal criteria: downstroke and upstroke, forms of serifs, stroke axis, x-height, etc.
Although the Vox-ATypI classification defines archetypes of typefaces, many typefaces can exhibit the characteristics of more than one class. Classicals Humanist Garalde Moderns Saul Bass. Saul Bass (/sɔːl bæs/; May 8, 1920 – April 25, 1996) was an American graphic designer and Academy Award winning filmmaker, best known for his design of motion picture title sequences, film posters, and corporate logos.
Bass designed some of the most iconic corporate logos in North America, including the Bell System logo in 1969, as well as AT&T's globe logo in 1983 after the breakup of the Bell System. He also designed Continental Airlines' 1968 jet stream logo and United Airlines' 1974 tulip logo, which became some of the most recognized airline industry logos of the era. §Early life §Film title sequences Bass became widely known in the film industry after creating the title sequence for Otto Preminger's The Man with the Golden Arm (1955). Screenwriter Nicholas Pileggi said of Saul and Elaine Bass, "You write a book of 300 to 400 pages and then you boil it down to a script of maybe 100 to 150 pages.
§Selected film title sequences §Logos and other designs §1950s Segoe. The current logo of Microsoft, introduced in 2012, uses Segoe. Segoe (/ˈsiːɡoʊ/ SEE-goh) is a typeface, or family of fonts, that is best known for its use by Microsoft. The company uses Segoe in its online and printed marketing materials, including recent logos for a number of products. Additionally, the Segoe UI font sub-family is utilized by numerous Microsoft applications, and may be installed by applications (such as Microsoft Office 2007 and Windows Live Messenger 2009). It was adopted as Microsoft's default system font beginning with Windows Vista, and is also used on outlook.com, Microsoft's web-based email service. In August 2012, Microsoft unveiled its new corporate logo based on the Segoe font, replacing the logo it had used for the previous 25 years. The Segoe name is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation, although the typeface was originally developed by Monotype.
§History Segoe was designed by Steve Matteson during his employment at Agfa Monotype. Primary color. The emission spectra of the three phosphors that define the additive primary colors of a CRT color video display. Unlike subtractive systems that use magenta, yellow, and cyan inks, additive systems such as computer displays mix red, green, and blue light to make all colors. Primary colors are sets of colors that can be combined to make a useful range of colors. For human applications, three primary colors are usually used, since human color vision is trichromatic. For additive combination of colors, as in overlapping projected lights or in CRT displays, the primary colors normally used are red, green, and blue. For a subtractive combination of colors, as in mixing of pigments or dyes, such as in printing, the primaries normally used are magenta, yellow, and cyan, though the set of red, yellow, and blue is popular among artists. See RGB color model, CMYK color model, and RYB color model for more on these popular sets of primary colors.
Biological basis Additive primaries Typeface. A Specimen, a broadsheet with examples of typefaces and fonts available. Printed by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features. Each font of a typeface has a specific weight, style, condensation, width, slant, italicization, ornamentation, and designer or foundry (and formerly size, in metal fonts). For example, "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed Italic" means the bold, condensed-width, italic version of ITC Garamond. It is a different font from "ITC Garamond Condensed Italic" and "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed," but all are fonts within the same typeface, "ITC Garamond.
" The art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. The term typeface is frequently confused with the term font. §Terminology PT Sans and PT Serif from the PT font superfamily, showing the similarities in letter structure. §History §Digital type Typography. In philately "typography", especially in the case of 19th century stamps, refers to letterpress printing. Typography is performed by typesetters, compositors, typographers, graphic designers, art directors, manga artists, comic book artists, graffiti artists, clerical workers, and everyone else who arranges type for a product. Until the Digital Age, typography was a specialized occupation. Digitization opened up typography to new generations of visual designers and lay users, and David Jury, Head of Graphic Design at Colchester Institute in England, states that “typography is now something everybody does.” §History Printing press, 16th century in Germany The essential criterion of type identity was met by medieval print artifacts such as the Latin Pruefening Abbey inscription of 1119 that was created by the same technique as the Phaistos disc.
Modern movable type, along with the mechanical printing press, is most often attributed to the goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg. §Scope Type design. Type design is the art and process of designing typefaces. §History Although the technology of printing text using movable type was invented in China, and despite the esteem which calligraphy held in that civilization, the vast number of Chinese characters meant that few distinctive, complete fonts could be afforded by Chinese printers.
For many centuries, creating type started with cutting punches, which acted as the masters. The material that was cut formed a prototype of the character from which type was cast by various means from an alloy usually containing lead. Type design accounted for the limitations of the printing process, such as the splashing properties of ink or the wear on the type itself. In many countries, though not the United States of America, type design could be copyrighted typeface by typeface. The USA offered and continues to offer design patents as an option for typeface design protection. §Principles §Profession §Industrial art
Colorimetry. Colorimetry is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception. " It is similar to spectrophotometry, but is distinguished by its interest in reducing spectra to the physical correlates of color perception, most often the CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities. §Instruments Colorimetric equipment is similar to that used in spectrophotometry. Some related equipment is also mentioned for completeness. Two spectral reflectance curves. §Tristimulus colorimeter In digital imaging, colorimeters are tristimulus devices used for color calibration. §Spectroradiometer, spectrophotometer, spectrocolorimeter The absolute spectral power distribution of a light source can be measured with a spectroradiometer, which works by optically collecting the light, then passing it through a monochromator before reading it in narrow bands of wavelength.
§Color temperature meter §See also §References Graphism. The birth of graphism The earliest traces of graphism date back to 30,000 years BC at the end of the Mousterian period and became more prevalent in the Chatelperronian period toward 35,000 BC. While it can be claimed that language merely represents a logical development of the vocal signals of the animal world, nothing comparable to the writing and reading of symbols existed before the dawn of homo sapiens. While motor function determines expression in the techniques and language of all anthropoids, reflection determines graphism in the figurative language of the most recent anthropoids. It has been hypothesized that graphism first appeared in the form of tight curves or series of lines engraved in bone or stone.
See also Graphism thesis References Portal:Color. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Color or colour (see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, yellow, blue and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light energy versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. Colors can be identified by their unique RGB and HSV values (see List of colors). Typically, only features of the composition of light that are detectable by humans (wavelength spectrum from 380 nm to 740 nm, roughly) are included, thereby objectively relating the psychological phenomenon of color to its physical specification.
A common depiction of a rainbow. Primary color. Couleur. Peinture de Claude Monet.« Le peintre ayant sur sa palette des couleurs, peint de la couleur, c'est tout simple. » La couleur peut se décrire dans une approche artistique, qui recherche des indications capables de guider les praticiens dans leur perception de la couleur et de l'emploi des pigments pour reproduire ou évoquer la sensation de couleur ; dans une approche chimique, qui étudie les colorants ; dans une approche physique, par l'analyse spectrale ; dans une approche physiologique, qui relie la perception au système visuel ; dans une approche psychophysique, débouchant sur la colorimétrie et sur la décomposition en composantes permettant une synthèse des couleurs.
La philosophie tente, depuis l'Antiquité grecque, de relier les notions de la couleur. Approches de la couleur[modifier | modifier le code] « Il est difficile de définir la couleur » — Sève 2009, p. 7 Selon les circonstances, la couleur peut désigner des caractères plus ou moins variés. Approche artistique Valeur Vivacité. Color. Color (American English) or colour (British English; see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, blue, yellow, and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors.
Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects or materials based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates. Because perception of color stems from the varying spectral sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells.
The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or simply color science. Physics of color Perception. Visual literacy. Visual literacy is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be communicated through a process of reading. Background The notion of visual literacy has been transforming the age of digital learning and reflecting the transformation of datagogies for quite some time. Classical and Medieval theories of memory and learning, for instance, placed a strong emphases on how the visual format of words and lines affected the ordering of information in the mind.
Since technological advances continue to develop at an unprecedented rate, educators are increasingly promoting the learning of visual literacies as indispensable to life in the information age. Visual literacy is not limited to modern mass media and new technologies. See also Communication design. Design. Color balance. Motion graphics. Graphisme. Graphic design. Motion graphic design.