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Spread (food) Common spreads include dairy spreads (e.g. cheeses, creams, and butters; though the term butter is broadly applied to many spreads), plant spreads (e.g. jams, jellies, peanut butter, hummus and baba ghanoush), margarines, yeast spreads (e.g.

Spread (food)

Vegemite and Marmite) and meat spreads (e.g. pâté, fleischbutter, cretons). Margarine. Margarine ( Modern margarine is made mainly of refined vegetable oil and water.


While butter is made from the butterfat of milk, modern margarine is made from plant oils and may also contain milk. In some locales it is colloquially referred to as "oleo", short for oleomargarine. [citation needed] Margarine can be used both for spreading or for baking and cooking. History[edit] Emperor Napoleon III of France offered a prize to anyone who could make a satisfactory alternative for butter, suitable for use by the armed forces and the lower classes.[7] French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès invented a substance he called oleomargarine, the name of which became shortened to the trade name "margarine".

Margarine advertising, 1893 During World War II, there was a shortage of butter in the United States and "oleomargarine" became popular. During WWII rationing, only two types of margarine were available in the UK, a premium brand and a cheaper budget brand. Manufacturing process[edit] Nutrition[edit] Margarine. Spoilage Molds in Dairy Products. Molds are present in air, water, and soil and are regularly found on production equipment and in/on dairy products.

Spoilage Molds in Dairy Products

Spoilage by molds occurs for many cheese types, but yogurt, sour cream, butter, sweetened condensed milk, and other dairy products are also occasionally affected. Visible growth, discoloration, structure disintegration, and off-flavors are the common quality defects. Because some mold species grow at 1–5 °C and tolerate low aw (down to 0.80) and belong to low oxygen tension, they may compete well on or in stored dairy products.

Some molds are successful in resisting preservatives (e.g., sorbate). Representative species most often belong to the genus Penicillium; however, Cladosporium, Phoma, Aspergillus, Cephalosporium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizobium, Alternaria, and other species also occur. Mycotoxins may be produced by some spoilage molds, and those of Penicillium and Aspergillus are well described. Good hygiene practice is very important to fight mold spoilage. MARGARINE AND BACTERIAL INFECTION. Viability of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in butter, yellow fat spreads, and margarine as affected by temperature and physical abuse.

Butter. Butter at the Borough Market, London Commonly made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks.


Producers sometimes add salt, flavorings, or preservatives. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion that results from an inversion of the cream, an oil-in-water emulsion. The milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Nutritional information As butter is essentially just the milk fat, it contains only traces of lactose, so moderate consumption of butter is not a problem for the lactose intolerant. It is a good source of Vitamin A equivalent. Butter may play a useful role in dieting by providing satiety. Etymology Butter is often served for spreading on bread with a butter knife. Production Churning cream into butter using a hand held mixer. Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream. Types Clarified butter.