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10 Completely Uncanny Superstitions From The Middle Ages. Weird Stuff In the pre-scientific Middle Ages, the world was at the same time both fascinating and frightening.

10 Completely Uncanny Superstitions From The Middle Ages

In the absence of proper knowledge, people had no choice but to fall back on their own imaginations to make sense of the myriad natural phenomena around them. The result was a world where everything seemed magical, a place teeming with angels and demons, fairies and goblins, elves, gnomes, and witches. This list takes us inside the medieval mind and the fears and superstitions through which it tried to explain the world. 10 The Sea In The Sky For this story, we are indebted to English chronicler Gervase of Tilbury and his work Otia Imperiala.

For proof, Gervase offers an episode that took place in an English village. Another tale concerns a merchant who accidentally dropped his knife while out at sea. 9 Omens Of Charlemagne’s Death The Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in A.D. 800. 8 Magonia 7 Changelings. King’s evil and the royal touch. In the Middle Ages it was believed in England and France that a touch from royalty could heal skin disease known as scrofula or the ‘king's evil’.

King’s evil and the royal touch

Scrofula was usually a swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck caused by tuberculosis. The practice began with King Edward the Confessor in England (1003/4-1066) and Philip I (1052-1108) in France. Subsequent English and French kings were thought to have inherited this ‘royal touch’, which was supposed to show that their right to rule was God-given. In grand ceremonies, kings touched hundreds of people afflicted by scrofula. They received special gold coins called 'touchpieces' which they often treated as amulets. By the late 1400s it was believed that you could also be cured by touching a type of coin called an angel, which had been touched by the monarch. Some monarchs touched many people. Bloodletting. Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of often small quantities of blood from a patient to cure or prevent illness and disease.

Bloodletting

Bloodletting was based on an ancient system of medicine in which blood and other bodily fluid were regarded as "humors" that had to remain in proper balance to maintain health. In the ancient world[edit] Earliest descriptions of bloodletting is available in Ancient Ayurvedic Texts, wherein detailed, systematic, scientific modes of bloodletting are cited. "Bleeding" a patient to health was modeled on the process of menstruation. The Talmud recommended a specific day of the week and days of the month for bloodletting, and similar rules, though less codified, can be found among Christian writings advising which saints' days were favourable for bloodletting.

In the 2nd millennium[edit] Ioannis Sculteti, Armamentium Chirugiae, 1693 — Diagrammed transfusion of sheep's blood. History of Phlebotomy & Interesting Facts. Phlebotomy in Ancient Times Phlebotomy is an extremely old practice that has been traced back to ancient Roman and Greek cultures, as well as the Egyptian civilization.

History of Phlebotomy & Interesting Facts

During ancient times, removing blood from the body was not a science, but used as a way to rid the body of illness or “evil spirits”. Draining blood was considered a way to successfully cure the body of what was ailing it and was generally performed using a lancet. “Bleeding” a Patient was Actually Modeled After a Woman’s Menstruation Cycle Hippocrates alleged that menstruation “purged women of their bad temperaments / moods”. An intricate system concerning the amount of blood to be removed from a patient was created by Galen. The blood could be venous or arterial, close to or distant from the part of the patient’s body being affected.

What Is a Hero? - The New York Times. Video We often talk about soldiers, firefighters and fictional characters with supernatural powers as heroes.

What Is a Hero? - The New York Times

Recently, the news media have used the term to describe three Americans who helped foil an attack on a speeding train in Europe. But what really is a hero? Does heroism always involve physical strength, or are there other qualities that define being a hero? In “Americans Resist Hero Label After Foiling Train Attack,” Adam Nossiter writes: PARIS — Looking awed by the sumptuous gilded surroundings of the United States ambassador’s residence here, the three young American men who thwarted an attack on a Paris-bound express train appeared at a news conference on Sunday, brushing aside suggestions that they were heroes.Airman First Class Spencer Stone; Alek Skarlatos, a specialist in the Oregon National Guard; and Anthony Sadler, a friend of theirs, sat side by side, soberly recounting how a European vacation swiftly turned into something else.

Moderns

Victorians. Restoration. Romantics. Renaissance. Medieval. Anglo-Saxon.