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Transgender ( pron.: / t r æ n z ˈ dʒ ɛ n d ər / ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies to vary from culturally conventional gender roles . Transgender is the state of one's gender identity (self-identification as woman, man, neither or both) not matching one's assigned sex (identification by others as male, female or intersex based on physical/ genetic sex ). [ 1 ] Transgender does not imply any specific form of sexual orientation ; transgender people may identify as heterosexual , homosexual , bisexual , pansexual , polysexual , or asexual ; some may consider conventional sexual orientation labels inadequate or inapplicable to them. The precise definition for transgender remains in flux, but includes:
The social construction of sexual behavior —its taboos , regulation , and social and political impact—has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times. [ edit ] The study of the history of human sexuality The work of Swiss jurist Johann Bachofen made a major impact on the study of the history of sexuality. Many authors, notably Lewis Henry Morgan and Friedrich Engels were influenced by, and criticized Bachofen's ideas on the subject, which were almost entirely drawn from a close reading of ancient mythology. In his 1861 book Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World Bachofen writes that in the beginning human sexuality was chaotic and promiscuous. This "aphroditic" stage was replaced by a matriarchal "demeteric" stage, which resulted from the mother being the only reliable way of establishing descendence.
In the culture of South Asia , hijras / eunuchs are physiological males who have feminine gender identity , adopt feminine gender roles , and wear women's clothing. The Hijra sanaths ( Hindi : हिजड़ा , Urdu : ہِجڑا , Bengali : হিজড়া , Kannada : ಹಿಜಡಾ , Telugu : హిజ్ర Punjabi ਹਿਜਰਅ) are also known as chhakka in Kannada and Bambaiya Hindi , khusra (ਕੁਸਅਰਅ) in Punjabi and kojja in Telugu . Hijras/Eunuchs have a long recorded history in the Indian subcontinent , from antiquity, as suggested by the Kama Sutra period, onwards. This history features a number of well-known roles within subcontinental cultures , part gender -liminal, part spiritual and part survival.
Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfeld 's book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. Today, Anna would probably be considered a trans man in modern parlance. The terms third gender and third sex describe individuals who are categorized (by their will or by social consensus) as neither man nor woman , as well as the social category present in those societies who recognize three or more genders . The term "third" is usually understood to mean "other"; some anthropologists and sociologists have described fourth, [ 1 ] fifth, [ 2 ] and even some [ 3 ] genders. The concepts of "third", "fourth" and "some" genders can be somewhat difficult to understand within Western conceptual categories. [ 4 ]
“Intersex” is a general term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn’t seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male. For example, a person might be born appearing to be female on the outside, but having mostly male-typical anatomy on the inside. Or a person may be born with genitals that seem to be in-between the usual male and female types—for example, a girl may be born with a noticeably large clitoris, or lacking a vaginal opening, or a boy may be born with a notably small penis, or with a scrotum that is divided so that it has formed more like labia.
Excerpted, with minor changes, from ‘Eve’s Rib - Searching for the Biological Roots of Sex Differences’ by Robert Peel (Crown Publishers, New York, 1994, ISBN 0-517-59298-3). ln l985, when she travelled to Kobe, Japan, to compete in the World University Games, Spanish hurdler Maria Patino [María José Martínez Patiño] got the shock of her life. Like other female competitors there, she had to take a sex test to prove she was not a man in disguise, but she wasn't worried.