Soc4. Soc3. Soc2. Reith 2000. Recently, I was visiting Bhatinda in Punjab because of an epidemic of farmers suicides.
Punjab used to be the most prosperous agricultural region in India. Today every farmer is in debt and despair. Vast stretches of land have become water-logged desert. Factory Farm Nation: How America Turned Its Livestock Farms into Factories. November 30th, 2010 Over the last two decades, small- and medium-scale livestock farms have given way to factory farms that confine thousands of cows, hogs and chickens in tightly packed facilities.
Farmers have adopted factory-farming practices largely at the behest of the largest meatpackers, pork processors, poultry companies and dairy processors. The Meatrix. Patterns of Subsistence: Comparisons. Over the last 10,000 years, human populations have grown rapidly.
This has resulted in increased pressure to produce more food with the same amount of land. As a consequence, our foraging ancestors were forced to change their subsistence patterns radically. Horticulture and pastoralism solved the problem for several thousand years. However, by 5,000 years ago in some regions of the world, intensive agriculture became a necessity. During the 19th and 20th centuries, most of humanity was forced to adopt this means of food production.
Patterns of Subsistence: Intensive Agriculture. Intensive agriculture is the primary subsistence pattern of large-scale, populous societies.
It results in much more food being produced per acre compared to other subsistence patterns. Beginning about 5,000 years ago, the development of intensive farming methods became necessary as the human population grew in some major river valleys to levels beyond the carrying capacity of the environment using horticulture and pastoralism. Patterns of Subsistence: Pastoralism. Pastoralism is a subsistence pattern in which people make their living by tending herds of large animals.
The species of animals vary with the region of the world, but they are all domesticated herbivores that normally live in herds and eat grasses or other abundant plant foods. Horses are the preferred species by most pastoralists in Mongolia and elsewhere in Central Asia. In East Africa, it is primarily cattle. Patterns of Subsistence: Horticulture. Horticulture is small scale, low intensity farming.
This subsistence pattern involves at least part time planting and tending of domesticated food plants. Pigs, chickens, or other relatively small domesticated animals are often raised for food and prestige. Many horticultural societies supplement their farming subsistence base with occasional hunting and gathering of wild plants and animals. Horticulturalist population densities are higher than those of most foragers and pastoralists. Patterns of Subsistence: Foraging. Foraging Foraging for wild plants and hunting wild animals is the most ancient of human subsistence patterns.
Prior to 10,000 years ago, all people lived in this way.