Second Intermediate Period (14th–17th Dynasties) (1674–1549 BC)
Second Intermediate Period (14th–17th Dynasties) (1674–1549 BC) and the Hyksos Apr 2
The Hyksos or Hycsos ( pron.: / ˈ h ɪ k s ɒ s / ; Egyptian heqa khaseshet , "foreign rulers"; Greek Ὑκσώς , Ὑξώς ) were a mixed people from West Asia who took over the eastern Nile Delta , ending the thirteenth dynasty , and initiating the Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt . [ 3 ] The Hyksos first appeared in Egypt c.1800 BC, during the eleventh dynasty , and began their climb to power in the thirteenth dynasty , coming out of the second intermediate period in control of Avaris and the Delta. By the fifteenth dynasty , they ruled Lower Egypt , and at the end of the seventeenth dynasty , they were expelled (c.1560 BC). The Hyksos practiced horse burials , and their chief deity became the Egyptian storm and desert god, Seth , whom they identified with their native storm god . [ 4 ] Although most Hyksos names seem Semitic , the Hyksos also included Hurrians , who, while speaking an isolated language , were under the rule and influence of Indo-Europeans . [ 5 ]
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom . It is best known as the period when the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt and whose reign comprised the Fifteenth dynasties. [ edit ] End of the Twelfth dynasty
The history of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3200 BC, when Lower and Upper Egypt became a unified state, until the country fell under Greek rule in 332 BC. [ edit ] Chronology Note
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt . Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology ) [ 1 ] with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh . [ 2 ] The history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms , separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods : the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age , the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age . Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power during the New Kingdom, in the Ramesside period where it rivalled the Hittite Empire , Assyrian Empire and Mitanni Empire , after which it entered a period of slow decline.