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Soil samples show Richard III suffered from roundworm. 3 September 2013Last updated at 20:53 ET By Melissa Hogenboom Science reporter, BBC News Soil from the pelvis area of Richard III's skeleton had many roundworm eggs Richard III suffered from a roundworm infection, a team says. A soil sample from the region where his infected intestines would have been during life, revealed multiple roundworm eggs.

Prevalent both in medieval times and in tropical countries today, the roundworm parasite spreads from faecal contamination and can grow up to one foot long. In addition to soil from the pelvis, scientists tested soil from other areas of the grave to see whether the eggs were equally distributed. "What we found was plenty of roundworm eggs in the sacral soil, where his intestines would have been. There were no parasite eggs of any kind in the skull soil and only very low levels around the grave," said Piers Mitchell, a medical consultant and researcher at Cambridge University.

Discarded human waste Common parasites. Readings in Early English. Readings in Early English - Old English Texts. Anno 449. In this year [lit here] Martianus and Valentinus succeeded to [lit received] kingship, and ruled seven years. And in their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by Vortigern, king of [the] Britons, came to Britain at the place which is called Ebbsfleet, first as a help to [the] Britons, but they afterwards fought against them. The king commanded them to fight against [the] Picts; and they did so, and had victory wherever they came.

Then they sent to Angeln, and told them to send more help. 455. 457. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The compared versions below clearly show that it would be a mistake to treat the ASC as if it were just one chronicle, one single MS, that supposedly was added to over the centuries. It is believed that during the 9th century a chronicle was drawn up in Wessex, probably due to King Alfred. Some of the sources used to compile this chronicle have been identified: Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum, and its chronological summary which is continued down to Ecgbryht (Egbert); several Northumbrian and Mercian king-lists; etc. Other (non-extant) sources have been suggested for other material in the chronicles, for example an earlier set of West Saxon annals down to 754 have been postulated to account for the relative frequency of West Saxon references to this point. There are very few (just 5) entries between 755 and 823 that refer specifically to Wessex, and these are thought to come from an oral tradition.

After 823 the material is contemporary with the compilation. Bibliography. Old english anglo saxon. Medieval skeletons give clues to leprosy origins. 13 June 2013Last updated at 14:10 ET By Melissa Hogenboom Science reporter, BBC News As part of their study, scientists extracted DNA from skeletons that were 1,000 years old The genetic code of leprosy-causing bacteria from 1,000-year-old skeletons has been laid bare. Similarities between these old strains of the bug and those prevalent today have given scientists unique insights into the spread of the disease.

It has revealed, for example, the key role played by the medieval Crusades in moving the pathogen across the globe. The researchers tell Science magazine they hope their study will lead them to the ancient origins of the leprosy. In medieval times, a sufferer of leprosy was likely to be an outcast, secluded from society in quarantined colonies.

Continue reading the main story Historic stigma Leprosy sufferers were often quarantined in living areas called leprosaria. "Leprosy was the only disease in medieval Europe that elicited a specific institutional response. Leprosy then and now. The Mary Rose: A Tudor ship's secrets revealed. By Eleanor Williams BBC News More than 30 years after it was raised from the seabed - and almost 500 years since it sank - the secrets of Henry VIII's flagship, the Mary Rose, are being revealed to the public - along with the faces of its crew. Just yards from where it was first constructed from 600 oak trees near Portsmouth's naval docks in 1510, the wreck of the Tudor warship now stands on view in its new £35m home.

Where once stood a proud, cutting-edge ship built for war, now lies a reconstructed array of wooden decks and pillars, withered by their hundreds of years at the bottom of the Solent. Standing nearby are some of the men who shared a grave with the ship for hundreds of years, their faces now reconstructed and displayed for the first time. Viewed through windows on three separate floors, the preserved wreck stands opposite some of its 19,000 artefacts recovered from the depths. Continue reading the main story Continue reading the main story The story of the Mary Rose “Start Quote. The Mary Rose: A Tudor ship's secrets revealed. Real King of England dies in Australia – the true royal lineage which would have changed British history. The recent death of 71-year-old Mike Hastings in a quiet town in New South Wales highlights the genetic lottery of monarchy and how dynastic fortunes hang by a thread. The unassuming Mr Hastings, who had worked variously as a forklift driver, a door-to-door encyclopaedia salesman and an agronomist, shot to fame in 2004 when he was tracked down by actor Tony Robinson for the Channel 4 documentary, Britain’s Real Monarch.

The genealogical research presented by the documentary provided strong evidence that Mike Hastings should rightfully have been: His Majesty Michael I, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of His Other Realms and Territories King, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith . His claim to the throne, which he cheerfully rejected when he discovered it, goes back to medieval England and the reign of King Edward IV . Edward ruled England from 1461 to his death in 1483, a period marked by the Wars of the Roses . Sapphire ring found near York may have belonged to 5th or 6th century king. A magnificent gold and sapphire ring found in a field in North Yorkshire was probably made in France and could have belonged to a Dark Ages king, according to a panel of experts.

The ring, unlike any found in the UK before, was discovered in a field at Escrick, just outside the ancient city of York, by a metal detectorist in 2009. It measures 2.5cm across and is intricately made of gold, prestige glass and a large sapphire. It was originally thought to be a 10th or 11th century bishop’s ring when it was bought by the Yorkshire Museum for £35,000 ($52,000).

However, a panel of 30 experts from across the UK has concluded that it is far older, probably dating to the 5th or 6th century, and historically more important. The sapphire was probably cut even earlier, during the Roman period, and was probably first set into a brooch. The Yorkshire Museum’s curator of archaeology, Natalie McCaul, said: “This sapphire ring is even more special than we had previously thought. Source: BBC. Mass Grave reveals horror of Thirty Years’ War’s bloodiest battle. The Battle of Lützen in 1632 is noted in history as one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years’ War, a Protestant victory, but one which cost the life of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, one of the leaders of the Protestant alliance. However, the human reality of the battle on that wintry day in 16 November, however, has been captured by der Spiegel Online‘s haunting pictures of an excavated mass grave from the site of the battlefield near Leipzig, Germany.

Maik Reichel, head of the Lützen museum, told der Spiegel, “In this battle the only rule that applied was, ‘him or me’. It was better to stab your opponent one extra time just to ensure there was no chance of him standing up again. About 20,000 men fought on each side and between 6,000 and 9,000 were killed.” It is known that the soldiers involved in the battle comprised Germans, Austrians and Swedes, as well mercenaries from England, Scotland and Croatia. Culture - Early German art: Defined by contradictions. Carbon test hopes for 'Battle of Lewes casualty' 30 April 2013Last updated at 11:50 ET The skull has sword wounds and a large number of blows to the head Tests are under way on a skeleton found in an East Sussex town to find out if it is a victim of the 1264 Battle of Lewes.

Lewes is gearing up for celebrations next year to mark the 750th anniversary of the battle between the armies of King Henry III and Simon de Montfort. York University experts are testing bones thought to be those of a soldier. Sussex Archaeological Society said the skeleton could take centre stage in next year's anniversary celebrations. Burial question Continue reading the main story “Start Quote The question is why is he in this cemetery? End QuoteEdwina Livesey Sussex Archaeological Society Edwina Livesey, from the society, said the remains were found years ago when a school was demolished in Lewes. She said that at the time archaeologists excavated a medieval cemetery containing a number of skeletons, of which Skeleton 180 was one. 'Starring role' Richard III Scoliosis: King May Have Had Painful Spine Treatments, Archaeologists Say.

By: Jeanna Bryner, LiveScience Managing Editor Published: 04/19/2013 09:42 AM EDT on LiveScience King Richard III may not have been a hunchback as portrayed by Shakespeare, but he did suffer from the spine-curving condition scoliosis, and he may have undergone painful medical treatments to straighten it out, scientists report today (April 19). Archaeologists announced in February that bones excavated from underneath a parking lot in Leicester, England, belonged to the medieval king. Since this confirmation, examination has continued on the bones and historical records, which have suggested the king was a control freak who had a friendly face.

Previous work showed King Richard III likely developed severe scoliosis, a painful condition, in his teen years. [Image Gallery: Photos Reveal the Discovery of Richard III] The remains of what may be King Richard III, showing a curved spine and signs of battle trauma. Even so, there is no evidence on his bones to support the treatment. Finding Richard. Ffee and qahwa: How a drink for Arab mystics went global.

17 April 2013Last updated at 20:13 ET By John McHugo Author The Arab world has given birth to many thinkers and many inventions - among them the three-course meal, alcohol and coffee. The best coffee bean is still known as Arabica, but it's come a long way from the Muslim mystics who treasured it centuries ago, to the chains that line our high streets. Think coffee, and you probably think of an Italian espresso, a French cafe au lait, or an American double grande latte with cinnamon. Perhaps you learned at school that the USA became a nation of coffee drinkers because of the excise duty King George placed on tea?

Today ubiquitous chains like Starbucks, Cafe Nero and Costa grace every international airport, and follow the now much humbler Nescafe as symbols of globalisation. Coffee is produced in hot climates like Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, Vietnam and Indonesia, and you could be forgiven if you thought it is a product from the New World like tobacco and chocolate. “Start Quote. Unearthed Scots find gives insight into Battle of Flodden. A crown shaped livery badge, thought to have been worn by a soldier in the personal retinue of King James IV, was discovered by archaeologists during a survey of the site of the Battle of Flodden. The badge, which is believed to have been buried for five centuries, is made of copper alloy and appears to have been snapped off a hat band.

Its design includes the Fleur de Lys with jewels and diamonds, elements which were part of the Scottish crown in 1513. The Battle of Flodden was a turning point in UK history and set the stage for the subsequent Union of the Crowns between Scotland and England. Chris Burgess, archaeology manager for the Flodden 1513 Ecomuseum, said: “This latest artefact was quite literally found on the very last day of our last survey on the western side of the battlefield. The survey of the battlefield, which aims to discover the exact location of the battle itself, is part of a wider project to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the historic battle.

Richard III Document Signed Circa 1473 To Be Auctioned (PHOTOS) An incredibly rare document signed by Richard III of England is set to be auctioned, and it's expected to fetch up to $125,000. The document, which dates to about 1473 and is signed "R. Gloucestre," is a record of Richard, then Duke of Gloucestershire, intervening in a dispute between a landowner and his tenants.

(Click fullscreen for best experience. Story continues below) Loading Slideshow This image provided by Nate D. Sanders Auctions shows a document signed by Richard III. Richard III Signed Document Auctioned 1 of 3 Hide Thumbnails Although only in his early 20s, Richard assumed control of the powerful Council of the North as Lord President in 1472.

Richard III, England's last Plantagenet monarch, ruled England between 1483 and 1485 and became the last English king to die in battle. "It was of great importance to the Tudor dynasty that this man was a villain," medieval art historian Dr. Interest in Richard III has helped drive demand for other auctioned artifacts. Also on HuffPost: 'King Alfred The Great' Bones Exhumed From Winchester Church Over Vandalism Fears. Bones that could belong to King Alfred the Great have been exhumed from a churchyard over fears that they might be stolen or vandalised. Archaeologists carried out the exhumation of an unmarked grave at St Bartholomew's Church in Winchester, Hampshire, this morning on church orders. There has been speculation the bones of the legendary 9th-century king - who is said to have burnt the cakes and defeated the Danes - could be buried there and the church felt there was a heightened risk of theft.

The statue of Alfred The Great in Winchester Interest in Alfred's resting place comes after the body of Richard III was found under a car park in Leicester. No permission has been given to analyse the bones to see if they are those of the Saxon monarch and they are now in safe storage. "Following the completion of work we can confirm that skeletal remains were discovered and have been exhumed from the grave," Winchester Diocesan spokesman Nick Edmonds said.

St. 'Black Death pit' unearthed by Crossrail project. By Jason Palmer Science and technology reporter, BBC News Excavations for London's Crossrail project have unearthed bodies believed to date from the time of the Black Death. A burial ground was known to be in an area outside the City of London, but its exact location remained a mystery.

Thirteen bodies have been found so far in the 5.5m-wide shaft at the edge of Charterhouse Square, alongside pottery dated to the mid-14th Century. Analysis will shed light on the plague and the Londoners of the day. DNA taken from the skeletons may also help chart the development and spread of the bacterium that caused the plague that became known as the Black Death. Charterhouse Square lies in an area that was once outside the walls of London, referred to at the time as "No-man's Land". By 1658, the area around Charterhouse Square (centre) had escaped its status as "no-man's land" Footage shows osteologists lowered into the pit, and some of its finds "It's fantastic. Richard III tomb plans revealed by Leicester cathedral.

Medieval knight remains found in Edinburgh car park - Heritage. Reconstructing Richard III: the man behind the myth. Treachery: What really brought down Richard III. Richard the Lionheart's mummified heart analysed. 'Downton' house could unlock secrets of Surrey history. Greco-Egyptian Alchemy in Byzantium (Study) | Byzantine News.