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The Arameans , or Aramaeans , ( Aramaic : ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ , ארמיא ; ʼaramáyé ) were a Northwest Semitic semi- nomadic and pastoralist people who originated in what is now modern Syria (Biblical Aram ) during the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age . Large groups migrated to Mesopotamia where they intermingled with the native Akkadian ( Assyrian and Babylonian ) population. A large proportion of Syriac Christians in modern Syria still espouse an Aramean identity to this day, though few now speak the Western Aramaic language. The Arameans never had a unified nation; they were divided into small independent kingdoms across parts of the Near East , particularly in what is now modern Syria. After the Bronze Age collapse , their political influence was confined to a number of Syro-Hittite states , which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire by the 8th century BC.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around the 18th century BC.
The Bronze Age collapse is a transition in the Aegean Region , Southwestern Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age that historians such as M. Liverani, S. Richard, Robert Drews, Frank J. Yurco, Amos Nur, Leonard R. Palmer, and others believe was violent, sudden and culturally disruptive. The palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia which characterised the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages .
A [ edytuj ] Abchazja , abchaz. Аҧсны ( Apsny ), gruz. აფხაზეთი (Apchazeti), ros.
Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ , Assyriā ; and -λογία , -logia ) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of ancient Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq ) and of related cultures that used cuneiform writing . The field covers the Akkadian sister-cultures of Assyria and Babylonia , together with their cultural predecessor; Sumer . The large number of cuneiform clay tablets preserved by these cultures provide an extremely large resource for the study of the period. The region's (and the world's) first cities such as Ur are archaeologically invaluable for studying the growth of urbanization. Scholars need a good knowledge of several languages: Akkadian and its major dialects and Sumerian , aided by such languages as Biblical Hebrew , Hittite , Elamite and Aramaic for comparative purposes, and the knowledge of writing systems that use several hundred core signs.
Aramaic is a family of languages (traditionally referred to as "dialects") belonging to the Semitic family, and more specifically, is a part of the Northwest Semitic subfamily, which also includes Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician . Aramaic script was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to both the Arabic and modern Hebrew alphabets . During its 3,000-year written history, [ 3 ] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship.
Akkadian ( lišānum akkadītum , 𒀝𒂵𒌈 ak.kADû) (also Accadian , Assyro-Babylonian ) [ 1 ] is an extinct Semitic language (part of the greater Afroasiatic language family) that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia . The earliest attested Semitic language, [ 2 ] it used the cuneiform writing system, which was originally used to write ancient Sumerian , an unrelated language isolate . The name of the language is derived from the city of Akkad , a major center of Semitic Mesopotamian civilization, during the Akkadian Empire (ca. 2334–2154 BC), although the language predates the founding of Akkad. The mutual influence between Sumerian and Akkadian had led scholars to describe the languages as a sprachbund . [ 3 ] Akkadian proper names were first attested in Sumerian texts from ca. the late 29th century BC. [ 4 ] From the second half of the third millennium BC (ca. 2500 BC), texts fully written in Akkadian begin to appear.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian speaking Semitic nation state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq ). It emerged as an independent state circa 1894 BC, the city of Babylon being its capital. It was often involved in rivalry with its fellow Akkadian state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi ( fl. ca. 1792- 1752 BC middle chronology, or ca. 1696 – 1654 BC, short chronology ) created an empire out of many of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire . The Babylonian state retained the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use (the language of its native populace), despite its Amorite founders and Kassite successors not being native Akkadians. It retained the Sumerian language for religious use, but by the time Babylon was founded this was no longer a spoken language, having been wholly subsumed by Akkadian.
The Vedic period (or Vedic age ) was a period in history during which the Vedas , the oldest scriptures of Hinduism , were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda , the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period. [ 1 ] The end of the period is commonly estimated to have occurred about 500 BCE, and 150 BCE has been suggested as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature .
The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC. [ edit ] Events 1700 BC – 1500 BC : Hurrian conquests. 1595 BC : Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I . 1570 BC : Cretan palaces at Knossos and other centres flourish despite disasters. 1567 BC : Egypt : End of Fifteenth Dynasty , end of Sixteenth Dynasty , end of Seventeenth Dynasty , start of Eighteenth Dynasty . c. 1550 BC: The city of Mycenae , located in the northeast Peloponnesus , comes to dominate the rest of Achaea , giving its name to Mycenaean civilization. 1556 BC : Cecrops I builds or rebuilds Athens following the great flood of Deucalion and the end of the Golden age .