Frontiers in Psychology. A Concise History of Asperger Syndrome: The Short Reign of a Troublesome Diagnosis. Introduction: Refrigerator Mothers and Fine-Boned Aristocrats The entry of autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) into the history of psychopathology was marked by extraordinary coincidences.
Both disorders were first described by Kanner (1943) and Asperger (1944), respectively. Both were Austrian-born physicians and, though unaware of each other’s writings, both used the term “autistic” to describe a unique group of children who shared features of impaired social interaction and restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests. Both Kanner (1943) and Asperger (1944) borrowed the term “autistic” from Eugen Bleuler, who used it in his “Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias” to describe extreme social withdrawal and self-centeredness in patients with schizophrenia.
FIGURE 1. Defining Asperger Syndrome: A Tower of Babel The End in the Beginning The consecration of AS as a distinct diagnosis was surrounded by controversy from the outset. Is as Different from HFA? A Foretold Resurrection? Among three different executive functions, general executive control ability is a key predictor of decision making under objective risk. 1General Psychology: Cognition, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany2Erwin L.
Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen, Germany Executive functioning is supposed to have an important role in decision making under risk. Several studies reported that more advantageous decision-making behavior was accompanied by better performance in tests of executive functioning and that the decision-making process was accompanied by activations in prefrontal and subcortical brain regions associated with executive functioning.
However, to what extent different components of executive functions contribute to decision making is still unclear. Analysis of cursive letters, syllables, and words handwriting in a French second-grade child with Developmental Coordination Disorder and comparison with typically developing children. An Extension of the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis from Developmental Language Disorders to Mathematical Disability. Introduction Children show marked individual differences in their mathematical abilities (Geary, 1994).
Mathematical disability (MD), which includes developmental dyscalculia, is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which math abilities are lower than expected given the individual’s age, where the difficulties are not better accounted for by intellectual disability, other developmental disorders, or neurological or motor disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
MD affects 7–10% of school-age children worldwide (Gross-Tsur et al., 1996; Shalev et al., 2000), and can persist as functional innumeracy into adolescence and adulthood (Geary et al., 2013). Whereas the development of math skills in typically developing (TD) children is characterized by improvements in math performance and more efficient problem-solving strategies (Butterworth, 2005), children with MD continue to rely on immature strategies, and make more calculation errors than their TD peers (Geary et al., 1992). Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia. Introduction Developmental dyslexia (DD) is characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading, which is not explained by intellectual impairment, sensory deficits, lack of adequate schooling opportunities, or neurological illness.
Associations between speech understanding and auditory and visual tests of verbal working memory: effects of linguistic complexity, task, age, and hearing loss. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. 1Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, USA2Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA3College of Social Work and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones.
Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Keywords: auditory driving, autonomic, binaural-beat, exercise, heart rate variability, relaxation Received: 21 August 2014; Accepted: 14 October 2014; Published online: 14 November 2014. *Correspondence: Patrick A. Basic auditory processing and sensitivity to prosodic structure in children with specific language impairments: a new look at a perceptual hypothesis. Introduction Specific language impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of learning that affects the processing and production of spoken language (Leonard, 2014).
Children with SLI have no obvious hearing or neurological impairments, and no apparent prosocial difficulties, yet they fail to acquire language skills at an age-appropriate rate. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review. Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia. Introduction Dyslexia is a neurologically based learning disorder with a genetic origin (Vellutino et al., 2004; Shaywitz et al., 2008; Peterson and Pennington, 2012) defined as “difficulties in accuracy or fluency of reading that are not consistent with the person’s chronological age, educational opportunities, or intellectual abilities” (Snowling and Hulme, 2012, p. 594); prevalence in the general population varies from 5 to 17% according to language, orthography transparency and with the criteria used to define low-achievement on reading ability (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005; Shaywitz et al., 2008).
Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills. 1Dipartimento di Storia, Scienze dell’Uomo e della Formazione, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy2Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione, Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts.
It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Complementary actions. 1Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy2Cognitive Neuroscience Center, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black.
Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Decreased Right Temporal Activation and Increased Interhemispheric Connectivity in Response to Speech in Preterm Infants at Term-Equivalent Age. Introduction The incidence of preterm birth before 37 weeks gestation has increased worldwide in recent years (Tracy et al., 2007; Gray et al., 2008; Vanderweele et al., 2012).
In Japan, it has increased from 4.1% of all live births in 1980 to 5.7% in 2010 (Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2011). Medical advancements in neonatology have significantly increased the survival rate of preterm infants (Larroque et al., 2004; Fanaroff et al., 2007; Gaddlin, 2011; Kono et al., 2011). Recent reports have indicated an approximate survival rate of 90% in Japan for preterm infants with birth weights below 1500 g (Kusuda et al., 2006; Itabashi et al., 2009; Kono et al., 2011). Developmental Coordination Disorder, An Umbrella Term for Motor Impairments in Children: Nature and Co-Morbid Disorders. Introduction According to current DSM criteria in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) a diagnosis of DCD can be given to children who firstly exhibit marked impairment in the development of motor skills or motor coordination in comparison to peer groups (e.g., catching an object, using scissors or cutlery, handwriting, riding a bike, or participating in sports), although no cut-off exists (criterion A) and secondly, an interference with activities of daily living and impact on academic performance, prevocational and vocational activities, leisure, and play (criterion B).
The onset of symptoms occurs in the early developmental period (criterion C). DCD is defined as a failure to have ever acquired the ability to perform age-appropriate complex motor actions that is not explained by inadequate practice or demonstration. Aims of the Current Study. Developmental Dyslexia and Dysgraphia: What can We Learn from the One About the Other? Introduction Developmental dysgraphia is a disorder characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of writing skills, with writing performance below that expected based on children’s class level. It is closely related to developmental dyslexia, a disorder in the acquisition of reading skills, and like developmental dysgraphia, despite adequate visus, schooling, and other cognitive abilities.
The prevalence for developmental writing disorders is about 7–15% among school-aged children, with boys being more affected than girls (Hawke et al., 2009; 2–3 times: Katusic et al., 2009). Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation. 1Department of Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain2Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Center for Research on Mind, Brain and Behavior, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected.
Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. Devil in the details? Developmental dyslexia and visual long-term memory for details. Introduction. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures. Introduction Models of word reading have broadly identified two pathways to word recognition: first accessing pronunciation or first accessing meaning. Everyone uses both pathways to some extent while reading, but the division of labor between them (i.e., reading procedure) can vary depending on the word type, context (Besner and Smith, 1992), the early literacy experiences of the individual, etc.
Editorial: The impact of learning to read on visual processing. Emerging Executive Functioning and Motor Development in Infants at High and Low Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Introduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Enhanced neural synchrony between left auditory and premotor cortex is associated with successful phonetic categorization. Executive functioning in preschoolers with specific language impairment. Facilitatory Effects of Multi-Word Units in Lexical Processing and Word Learning: A Computational Investigation.
Gesture’s Neural Language. Introduction People use a variety of movements to communicate. Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Cases with Different Deficit Profiles. Introduction. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language. Impact of Cerebral Visual Impairments on Motor Skills: Implications for Developmental Coordination Disorders. Impaired Oculomotor Behavior of Children with Developmental Dyslexia in Antisaccades and Predictive Saccades Tasks. Language by mouth and by hand.
List context effects in languages with opaque and transparent orthographies: a challenge for models of reading. Literacy transforms speech production. Mapping Symbols to Sounds: Electrophysiological Correlates of the Impaired Reading Process in Dyslexia. Mathematics and reading difficulty subtypes: minor phonological influences on mathematics for 5–7-years-old. Moderating variables of music training-induced neuroplasticity: a review and discussion.
Mind-Reading Ability and Structural Connectivity Changes in Aging. Moving from hand to mouth: echo phonology and the origins of language. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation. Music and Dyslexia: A New Musical Training Method to Improve Reading and Related Disorders. Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review. Neuroscience illuminating the influence of auditory or phonological intervention on language-related deficits. Online Control of Prehension Predicts Performance on a Standardized Motor Assessment Test in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children. Perception of Filtered Speech by Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Children with Specific Language Impairments. Phonology is not accessed earlier than orthography in Chinese written production: evidence for the orthography autonomy hypothesis.
Predicting Future Reading Problems Based on Pre-reading Auditory Measures: A Longitudinal Study of Children with a Familial Risk of Dyslexia. Review of neural rehabilitation programs for dyslexia: how can an allophonic system be changed into a phonemic one? Sources of Confusion in Infant Audiovisual Speech Perception Research. Speed and accuracy of dyslexic versus typical word recognition: an eye-movement investigation. Spelling Acquisition in English and Italian: A Cross-Linguistic Study. Syllable frequency and word frequency effects in spoken and written word production in a non-alphabetic script. The Acquisition of Orthographic Knowledge: Evidence from the Lexicality Effects on N400. The brain dynamics of linguistic computation. The Contribution of Phonological Awareness to Reading Fluency and Its Individual Sub-skills in Readers Aged 9- to 12-years. The contribution of phonological knowledge, memory, and language background to reading comprehension in deaf populations.
The development of sensorimotor influences in the audiovisual speech domain: some critical questions. The effect of magnocellular-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review. The genetic basis of music ability. The language faculty that wasn't: a usage-based account of natural language recursion. The Nature of Verbal Short-Term Impairment in Dyslexia: The Importance of Serial Order. The Neural Basis of Speech Perception through Lipreading and Manual Cues: Evidence from Deaf Native Users of Cued Speech. Theory of Mind Deficits and Social Emotional Functioning in Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment. The Processing of Visual and Phonological Configurations of Chinese One- and Two-Character Words in a Priming Task of Semantic Categorization.
The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample. The role of syllables in sign language production. The Role of Visual-Spatial Abilities in Dyslexia: Age Differences in Children’s Reading? Training Early Literacy Related Skills: To Which Degree Does a Musical Training Contribute to Phonological Awareness Development? TVA-based assessment of visual attentional functions in developmental dyslexia. Utility of TMS to understand the neurobiology of speech. Visual speech discrimination and identification of natural and synthetic consonant stimuli. What is the role of visual skills in learning to read? When does word frequency influence written production?
Where Do Action Goals Come from? Evidence for Spontaneous Action–Effect Binding in Infants. Working Memory Capacity as a Dynamic Process.