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Frontiers in Neuroscience

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Aberrant Development of Speech Processing in Young Children with Autism: New Insights from Neuroimaging Biomarkers. Introduction Autism, a term initially introduced by Kanner (1943) and almost at the same period by Asperger (1944), is a pervasive disorder of neurodevelopment with an early onset.

Aberrant Development of Speech Processing in Young Children with Autism: New Insights from Neuroimaging Biomarkers

According to the most recent census, autism affects up to 1 in 68 children (1.5%) in the United States (Baio, 2014). ASD is characterized by impairments in core areas of cognitive and adaptive function, social interactions, and communication (American Psychiatric Association and American Psychiatric Association. Dsm-5 Task Force, 2013). Individuals with ASD show a reduced interest in socially relevant stimuli (McPartland et al., 2011; Pelphrey et al., 2011; Chevallier et al., 2012; Kohls et al., 2012), tend to avoid eye-contact with their immediate surrounding (Senju and Johnson, 2009; Elsabbagh et al., 2012; Jones and Klin, 2013), and show repetitive behaviors and restricted interests (Turner, 1999; Watt et al., 2008; Arnott et al., 2010). Figure 1. Language Development in Typically Developing Individuals. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models.

Introduction TS Definition, Epidemiology, Symptoms, and Natural Course Tourette's Syndrome (TS) was named after Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904) who first described it as a “tic syndrome” in 1885 and whose observations are still considered mostly valid today.

Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models

Tics are involuntary movements or vocalizations that can involve different parts of the body changing in frequency, intensity and duration. A diagnose of TS requires the presence of both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics with an onset before age 18 years and a persistence for at least 1 year (DSM-5). A hypothesis on the biological origins and social evolution of music and dance. 1School of Life Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China2Ocean Science and Technology Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, China3Gene and Cell Engineering Laboratory, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China The origins of music and musical emotions is still an enigma, here I propose a comprehensive hypothesis on the origins and evolution of music, dance, and speech from a biological and sociological perspective.

A hypothesis on the biological origins and social evolution of music and dance

I suggest that every pitch interval between neighboring notes in music represents corresponding movement pattern through interpreting the Doppler effect of sound, which not only provides a possible explanation for the transposition invariance of music, but also integrates music and dance into a common form—rhythmic movements. Accordingly, investigating the origins of music poses the question: why do humans appreciate rhythmic movements?

Reviewed by: Copyright © 2015 Wang. Assessing Auditory Processing Deficits in Tinnitus and Hearing Impaired Patients with the Auditory Behavior Questionnaire. Introduction The auditory system transmits sounds from the environment to the auditory cortex where they are processed to produce a perception.

Assessing Auditory Processing Deficits in Tinnitus and Hearing Impaired Patients with the Auditory Behavior Questionnaire

The sound signal, a vibroacoustic wave, is transduced into an electrical train of pulses at the synapses between the hair cells of the Corti organ and the auditory nerve. This interface is a powerful device able to transmit signals from the periphery to the auditory pathway spanning 12 decades in amplitude (120 dB) and 3 decades in frequency (20–20 kHz) (Knipper et al., 2013). This mechano-electrical transduction of sound waves into a train of electrical spikes is completed within 1–4 ms with standard deviation of roughly 0.8 ms, which is even lesser than the corresponding constant time of mammalian visual cells (Kopp-Scheinpflug and Tempel, 2015). Auditory signals are thus reliably transmitted along large diameter axons and across highly specialized synapses through the afferent auditory pathway. Peripheral deficits afford HL or hypoacusis. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex. Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system.

Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

Introduction The developing brain is hungry to engage with diverse and meaningful sensory input.

Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

Hearing sounds, and actively making meaning from those sounds, bootstraps language development, provides a framework for socioemotional bonding, and contributes to the development of auditory, as well as some non-auditory, cognitive skills (Kuhl, 2004; Kral and Eggermont, 2007; Conway et al., 2009; Kral and Sharma, 2012). Early acoustic experiences also play a formative role in guiding an individual's life of listening and learning, for better or worse. Children who grow up in poverty have less developed language and cognitive skills than their peers, putatively reflecting some degree of linguistic deprivation (Bradley and Corwyn, 2002; Stevens et al., 2009). This is likely due to a confluence of factors, including greater environmental noise in low-income neighborhoods, poorer nutrition, and potentially fewer enriching auditory interactions with caregivers. Methods Subjects Group Formation. Autism As a Disorder of High Intelligence. Introduction ‘How wonderful that we have met with a paradox.

Autism As a Disorder of High Intelligence

Now we have some hope of making progress.’ Niels Bohr. Development of social skills in children: neural and behavioral evidence for the elaboration of cognitive models. Introduction Social cognition involves all the abilities that enable us to understand social agents and to interact with them.

Development of social skills in children: neural and behavioral evidence for the elaboration of cognitive models

In this process, it is crucial to be able to predict the behavior of others, by detecting, analyzing, and interpreting their intentions. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables. Introduction Psychological and neuroscientific research demonstrates that musical training in children is associated with heightening of sound sensitivity as well as enhancement in verbal abilities and general reasoning skills.

How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables

Studies in the domain of auditory cognitive neuroscience have begun revealing the functional and structural brain plasticity underlying these effects. However, the extent to which the intensity and duration of instrumental training or other factors such as family background, extracurricular activities, attention, motivation, or instructional methods contribute to the benefits for brain development is still not clear.

Language Impairments in ASD Resulting from a Failed Domestication of the Human Brain. Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by several and severe cognitive and social deficits, including language and communication problems, repetitive and stereotypical behavior, and problems with social interaction (Bailey et al., 1996).

Language Impairments in ASD Resulting from a Failed Domestication of the Human Brain

In DSM-V, language deficits are no longer explicitly postulated as a central feature of ASD because they are subsumed in its distinctive communication problems. Nevertheless, it is clear that ASD entails a typical language profile and language developmental path (reviewed in Benítez-Burraco and Murphy, 2016; see also Tager-Flusberg et al., 2005; Tager-Flusberg, 2006; Eigsti et al., 2007; Bourguignon et al., 2012).

Because of the masking effect of a variable IQ, and the variable degree of functionality exhibited by ASD patients, it is difficult to hypothesize a core language deficit in this condition. Domestic Traits in the ASD Phenotype. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children. Introduction The auditory cortex (AC) is very widely connected with different brain regions, including subcortical, prefrontal and parietal areas, where attentional and default networks are hosted. In view of the strong interdependence of such integrated networks (Scheich et al., 2011; Rodriguez-Fornells et al., 2012) it is not surprising that central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), i.e. difficulties in recognizing and interpreting acoustic patterns that arise from dysfunction in the central nervous system, are often associated with attention (Sergeant et al., 2003), language, and literacy (Dawes et al., 2009) problems.

Neural mechanisms of auditory categorization: from across brain areas to within local microcircuits. Introduction Auditory categorization is a computational process in which sounds are classified and grouped based on their acoustic features and other types of information (e.g., semantic knowledge about the sounds). For example, when we hear the word “Hello” from different speakers, we can categorize the gender of each speaker based on the pitch of the speaker's voice. On the other hand, in order to analyze the linguistic content transmitted by speech sounds, we can ignore the unique pitch, timbre etc. of each speaker and categorize the sound into the distinct word category “Hello.” Neural pathways for visual speech perception. 1Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA2Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA3Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain?

Neuropathological Mechanisms of Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a behaviorally defined disorder that has recently been estimated to affect as many as 1 out of 45 individuals (Zablotsky et al., 2015). Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia. Introduction Developmental dyslexia refers to an inability to read at grade level despite adequate instruction, intellectual ability, motivation and regardless of socioeconomic status (Berninger, 2001).

Developmental dyslexia, which will be referred to as dyslexia for the remainder of this paper, is estimated to effect 4–12% of the population and is resilient into adulthood (see Gabrieli, 2009 for review). Socioeconomic status and structural brain development. Introduction Human development does not occur within a vacuum. The environmental contexts and social connections a person experiences throughout his or her lifetime significantly impact the development of both cognitive and social skills. The incorporation of neuroscience into topics more commonly associated with the social sciences, such as culture or socioeconomic status (SES), has led to an increased understanding of the mechanisms that underlie development across the lifespan.

The Broad Autism (Endo)Phenotype: Neurostructural and Neurofunctional Correlates in Parents of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a set of early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by a disrupted development of brain connectivity with several cascading effects on neuropsychological functions (Narzisi et al., 2013; Kana et al., 2014). The Evolutionary Concept of “Preadaptation” Applied to Cognitive Neurosciences. The term preadaptation in evolution refers to a large change in function accomplished with little or no change in structure (Ridley, 2004). That is, preadaptation refers to the possibility of a characteristic to adopt a new biological function without evolutionary modification. The idea that the function of a trait might shift during its evolutionary history was initially developed by Darwin (1859). This phenomenon is usually known as “preadaptation.”

However, since this term may suggest teleology, it has been proposed to be replaced by the term “exaptation” (Gould and Vrba, 1982). I shall refer, however, to preadaptation because it is the most frequently used name. Preadaptation can refer both to anatomical or behavioral characteristics. Homo sapiens has existed for about 150,000 years without evident neurological changes (Carroll, 2003). There have been very few attempts to relate current cognitive abilities with their preadaptation. Table 1. Author Contributions Acknowledgments. The evolution of music and human social capability. Background Music is a fundamental part of our evolution; we probably sang before we spoke in syntactically guided sentences.

The Genetic Etiology of Tourette Syndrome: Large-Scale Collaborative Efforts on the Precipice of Discovery. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception. Introduction The developing central nervous system, at first exuberant in its connectivity, is tamed and shaped by the experiences of youth to produce the fully formed and functional mature brain. This functionally plastic period of development allows the incredibly detailed connectivity of the brain to respond to the environment in which it finds itself rather than be bound and restricted by the limits of a single genetic program. Toward an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Sensory Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Integration of the Neural and Symptom Literatures. Introduction. TS-EUROTRAIN: A European-Wide Investigation and Training Network on the Etiology and Pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.