Future - Science & Environment - Remote-controlled protein factories Thanks to advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering, we are finding ever more complex ways of converting nature into living protein factories that serve our needs. Engineered bacterial cells can churn out medically useful proteins such as insulin, the blood-clotting agent thrombin, and a host of other human enzymes and hormones. Plants, yeast and even other mammals can be given the genes needed to produce valuable proteins that they don’t make naturally. Most famously, even notoriously, genetically modified goats can secrete spider silk in their milk, which can be extracted and used to make tough fibres. But in many ways this is taking a sledgehammer to a nut. If all you want is a particular protein – whose chemical structure in encoded within a gene in DNA – then even a bacterium is an awfully complicated bit of machinery to make it.
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Want to stay on top of all the space news? Follow @universetoday on Twitter Artist concept of how a galaxy might accrete mass from rapid, narrow streams of cold gas. Gas, Not Galaxy Collisions Responsible for Star Formation in Early Universe
I have been involved in alternative energy research for the last 4 plus years. My research into Nikola Tesla, Victor Schauberger and John Keely taught me that energy and the search for it in the universe is highly interrelated with energy of the body and the search for greater health. One hundred years ago there were more electric cars on the road than gasoline powered ones. Lakhovskys Multi-Wave Oscillator
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Four sons of Horus The four sons of Horus were a group of four gods in Egyptian religion, who were essentially the personifications of the four canopic jars, which accompanied mummified bodies. Since the heart was thought to embody the soul, it was left inside the body. The brain was misleadingly thought only to be the origin of mucus, so it was reduced to liquid, removed with metal hooks, and discarded. This left the stomach (and small intestines), liver, large intestines, and lungs, which were removed, embalmed and stored, each organ in its own jar. There were times when embalmers deviated from this scheme: during the 21st Dynasty they embalmed and wrapped the viscera and returned them to the body, while the Canopic jars remained empty symbols.
Cutaneous condition Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails). While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying etiologies and pathogenetics are often not known. Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (for example, conditions of the mucous membrane), morphology (chronic blistering conditions), etiology (skin conditions resulting from physical factors), and so on.
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For a quick summary of the last 25 million years in human brain evolution, just watch how our brains change between infancy and adulthood. Over its first few decades, the human cerebral cortex — the brain’s wrinkled outer tissue — evolves in ways that parallel its evolution since we last shared a common ancestor with macaque monkeys. It’s not an absolute one-to-one correlation, but the overlap is so striking that it’s hard to ignore, said neurobiologist David Van Essen of Washington University in St. Human Evolution Recapped in Kids' Brain Growth | Wired Science
A gene involved in the production of sperm is shared by almost all living animals, including sea anemones, worms, insects, marine invertebrates, fish and humans. The finding suggests the ability to produce sperm arose just once, 600 million years ago, and has been conserved through all subsequent animal evolution. “People have thought that there was a single common ancestor because we see sperm reproduction in many animals, but previously there was no conclusive evidence that sperm production has a single common origin in all animals,” said geneticist Eugene Xu from Northwestern University, co-author of the study being published July 15 in PLoS Genetics. Renee Reijo Pera, director of stem cell research at Stanford University, said the result is interesting because sperm cells have so much in common, but also need to be different enough to be specific to each species. “If a human could produce an egg that could be fertilized by a monkey it would be really bad,” she said. Primordial Sperm Gene Found | Wired Science
Chicago -- Children with even relatively mild concussions can have persistent attention and memory problems a year after their injuries, according to a study that helps identify which youths may be most at risk for lingering symptoms. In most children with these injuries, symptoms resolve within a few months, but the study suggests that problems may linger for up to 20 percent of them, said study author Keith Owen Yeates, a neuropsychologist at Ohio State University's Center for Biobehaviorial Health. Problems such as forgetfulness were more likely to linger than fatigue, dizziness and other physical complaints, the study found. Mild concussions found to cause lingering problems