The European Union Explained. Opt-outs in the European Union - Wikipedia. State with an opt-out State without an opt-out In general, the law of the European Union is valid in all of the twenty-eight European Union member states.
However, occasionally member states negotiate certain opt-outs from legislation or treaties of the European Union, meaning they do not have to participate in certain policy areas. Currently, four states have such opt-outs: Denmark and United Kingdom (four opt-outs each), Ireland (two opt-outs) and Poland (one opt-out). This is distinct from the enhanced co-operation, a measure introduced in the Treaty of Amsterdam, whereby a minimum of nine member states are allowed to co-operate within the structure of the European Union without involving other member states, after the European Commission and a qualified majority have approved the measure. European Union opt-outs. Enhanced cooperation - Wikipedia. In the European Union (EU), enhanced cooperation is a procedure where a minimum of nine EU member states are allowed to establish advanced integration or cooperation in an area within EU structures but without the other members being involved. As of February 2013 this procedure is being used in the fields of divorce law and patents, property regimes of international couples and is approved for the field of a financial transaction tax. This is distinct from the EU opt-out, that is a form of cooperation between EU members within EU structures, where it is allowed for a limited number of states to refrain from participation (e.g.
EMU, Schengen Area). It is further distinct from Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification and permanent acquis suspensions, whose lifting is conditional on meeting certain benchmarks by the affected member states. History
Barroso warns against two-speed Europe. Is a two speed Europe inevitable? (07Jun12) Multi-speed Europe - Wikipedia. Multi-speed Europe or two-speed Europe (called also "variable geometry Europe" or "Core Europe" depending on the form it would take in practice) is the idea that different parts of the European Union should integrate at different levels and pace depending on the political situation in each individual country.
Indeed, multi-speed Europe is currently a reality, with only a subset of EU countries being members of the eurozone and of the Schengen area. Like other forms of differentiated integration such as à la carte and variable geometry, "multi-speed Europe" arguably aims to salvage the "widening and deepening of the European Union" in the face of political opposition. Yes Minister explains the EEC (EU) Opting Out of the EU: The UK and Denmark.