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3c LAND - DEFORESTATION IN TROPICS

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AMAZON RAINFOREST

INDONESIAN PALM OIL PRODUCTION. There are only two truly intact forests left on Earth, study claims - World - News - The Independent. Can a forest be considered a forest if it is carved up by roads and highways?

There are only two truly intact forests left on Earth, study claims - World - News - The Independent

No, say a team of researchers who studied forest fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth's ecosystems. Ex-Nasa man to plant one billion trees a year using drones - World - News. BioCarbon Engineering wants to use drones for good, using the technology to seed up to one billion trees a year, all without having to set foot on the ground. 26 billion trees are currently being burned down every year while only 15 billion are replanted.

Ex-Nasa man to plant one billion trees a year using drones - World - News

If successful, the initiative could help address this shortfall in a big way. Drones should streamline reforestation considerably, with hand-planting being slow and expensive. "The only way we're going to take on these age-old problems is with techniques that weren't available to us before," CEO and former Nasa-engineer Lauren Fletcher said. "By using this approach we can meet the scale of the problem out there. " The drones will fire pods containing pre-germinated seeds at the ground. BBC Radio 4 - Today, 03/09/2015, Three trillion trees on Earth - new study suggests. New tally shows the trees outnumber us 400 to 1.

How many trees are there on planet Earth?

New tally shows the trees outnumber us 400 to 1

A new study estimates the number at somewhere around 3.04 trillion. That's about 400 trees for every person. And while that may seem like a lot, the researchers say that before humans began clearing forests, the Earth was home to nearly twice as many trees. Number of trees down 46% since human civilisation. The number of trees on Earth has almost halved since the beginning of human civilisation, a new assessment has found.

Number of trees down 46% since human civilisation

There are more than three trillion trees worldwide - around eight times more than some previous estimates - according to the study led by researchers at Yale University in the US. But around 15 billion trees are currently being lost each year as a result of deforestation, forest management and changes in land use, the research published in the journal Nature showed.

SOYA IN THE AMAZON

This map will change how you see the world. Calling all geography nerds: The US Geological Survey has published a global ecosystems map which it says is the most detailed in the world.

This map will change how you see the world

The map is an interactive mosaic of 3.5 billion cells, detailing more than 40,000 unique ecological areas based on four different factors that determine the make-up of an ecosystem – bioclimate, landforms, rock type and land cover. Cartography nuts can use the browser to click on any spot of the map to be given a description of the ecosystem in that exact location as well as scroll through a selection of places the USGS has picked out for special mention (see examples below).

The Association of American Geographers, which developed the new map with the USGS, explains it was created to allow scientists, land managers, conservationists, developers, and the public "to improve regional, national, and global resource management, planning, and decision making". And we’re glad they did. More: The stereotype map of Britain according to north Londoners. L'Equateur bat un record mondial... de reforestation. Reporting greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with Pan-tropical biomass maps. The JRC recently published an article on the use of pan-tropical biomass maps to report greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.

Reporting greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with Pan-tropical biomass maps

Emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation are estimated to account for 7 to 14% of the total CO2 emissions from human activities. A reduction of deforestation and forest degradation activities in the tropics can therefore significantly help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The ‘reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation’ (REDD+) scheme under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is expected to offer results-based payments to developing countries for reducing emissions from forested lands.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) proposes guidelines to estimate GHG emissions and removals from forest and land, composed of three ‘Tier’ levels. Slash-and-burn. Slash-and-burn is an agricultural technique that involves the cutting and burning of plants in forests or woodlands to create fields.

Slash-and-burn

It is subsistence agriculture that typically uses little technology. It is typically key in shifting cultivation agriculture, and in transhumance livestock herding.[1] Old terms for slash-and-burn in English include assarting, swidden, and fire-fallow cultivation. Today the term slash-and-burn is mainly associated with tropical rain forests.

Slash-and-burn is used by 200 million to 500 million people worldwide.[2][3] In 2004 it was estimated that, in Brazil alone, 500,000 small farmers cleared an average of one hectare of forest per year each. History[edit] Extinction of Rainforest Species Slows Future Growth. Rainforest conservationists estimate that between 0.2 and 0.3 percent of rainforest species are lost annually, assuming that 1 percent of the rainforest is being cut per year.

Extinction of Rainforest Species Slows Future Growth

That might sound like a relatively small number, until you figure the vast number of species in the rainforest, many of which have yet to be identified. By these estimates, we’re losing some 4,000 to 6,000 species to rainforest destruction every 12 months. In and of itself, this should be incredibly alarming. Here at RainforestMaker, we recognize it as especially troubling in light of a recent study revealing the massive impact of the loss of a handful of larger mammal species, known as “mega fauna,” which went extinct some 10,000 years ago. Researchers with Oxford University say this loss created a lack of nutrient dispersal throughout the forests, which has significantly slowed forest regeneration.

Some history: 12,000 years ago, the Amazon rainforest was home to a host of large mammalian creatures.