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3) AIR POLLUTION

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Scientists: air pollution led to more than 5.5 million premature deaths in 2013. Air pollution caused more than 5.5 million people to die prematurely in 2013, according to research presented on Friday, with more than half of those deaths in India and China and illnesses in those countries almost certain to rise.

Scientists: air pollution led to more than 5.5 million premature deaths in 2013

According to scientists from the US, Canada, China and India, who presented their findings at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in Washington DC, conditions caused by air pollution killed 1.6 million people in China and 1.4 million people in India in 2013. “Air pollution is the fourth-highest risk factor for death globally and by far the leading environmental risk factor for disease,” said Michael Brauer, a researcher from the University of British Columbia.

Particulates. This diagram shows types, and size distribution in micrometres, of atmospheric particulate matter This animation shows aerosol optical thickness of emitted and transported key tropospheric aerosols from 17 August 2006 to 10 April 2007, from a 10 km resolution GEOS-5 "nature run" using the GOCART model.[1][2] (click for more detail) * green: black and organic carbon * red/orange: dust * white: sulfates * blue: sea salt Movie map of distribution of aerosol particles, based on data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite. * Green areas show aerosol plumes dominated by larger particles. * Red areas show aerosol plumes dominated by small particles. * Yellow areas show where large and small aerosol particles are mixing. * Gray shows where the sensor did not collect data.

Particulates

Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Unique ways to deal with China's air pollution. Inside China's most polluted city. Killer Fog: the story of the London Smog Disaster. 1952 smog crisis Arsenal 009. Air quality index. Wildfires give rise to an elevated AQI in parts of Greece Definition and usage[edit] Computation of the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration over a specified averaging period, obtained from an air monitor or model.

Air quality index

Taken together, concentration and time represent the dose of the air pollutant. Health effects corresponding to a given dose are established by epidemiological research.[4] Air pollutants vary in potency, and the function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant. Air quality index values are typically grouped into ranges. The AQI can increase due to an increase of air emissions (for example, during rush hour traffic or when there is an upwind forest fire) or from a lack of dilution of air pollutants. On a day when the AQI is predicted to be elevated due to fine particle pollution, an agency or public health organization might: Air Quality Index. Air Pollution in World: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map. Ukkel, Belgium Air Pollution: Real-time PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI)

Air pollution. "Bad air quality" and "Air quality" redirect here.

Air pollution

For the obsolete medical theory, see Bad air. For the measure of how polluted the air is, see Air quality index. Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into the Earth's atmosphere, possibly causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment. The atmosphere is a complex natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. NASA Animation Shows Asian Air Pollution Moving Across the Globe. The Devastating Effects of Pollution in China (Part 1/2) A Chinese artist vacuumed up Beijing’s smog for 100 days and made a brick from what he collected. Think of physics and you most likely picture clearly defined, specific systems: atoms interacting, equations involving force, mass, and acceleration, and recent discoveries such as the Higgs boson or gravitational waves.

A Chinese artist vacuumed up Beijing’s smog for 100 days and made a brick from what he collected

But why should physics be limited to such topics? After all, Axel Kleidon, researcher at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany, said, “we live in a physics world where things have a physical function.” There’s a long history of using physics to describe wider systems, such as Robert Ayres’ writing on how thermodynamics describes the development of socioeconomics, technological progress, and economics. A more recent attempt to unite all manner of behavior under one simple physics law comes from Adrian Bejan, mechanical engineering professor at Duke University. He devised his Constructal Law in 1996 and has an upcoming book on the subject for a non-academic audience.

Kleidon is more cautious. Berkeley Earth. In April 2014, Berkeley Earth began a major new effort to collect and analyze the world’s air pollution data.

Berkeley Earth

Real-time Map of Air Pollution (larger view) Recent Paper on Chinese Pollution In August 2015 our first scientific paper on air pollution in China, was accepted for publication by PLOS ONE (expected publication date is 20 August). The paper included four months of data, but we now have analysis and data for 16 months, April 2014 through August 2015. We found that 1.6 million people are dying every year from air pollution in China, and we have also been able to identify the sources of the air pollution.

For more information about this work see: To browse the images and data, see: You can also download the data from our paper here. Inside China's 'cancer villages' Xie Zhengqiang is no stranger to death but he trembles every time he thinks about his nephew.

Inside China's 'cancer villages'

When doctors diagnosed three-month-old Xie Yuling with a rare auto-immune disease in 2011, the baby's father was out sea crab fishing, so Xie was sent to the Shanghai hospital where his nephew was undergoing treatment. Three times a week he cycled alone past his fishing village's tucked-away tangle of concrete-hulled houseboats, past the miles of adjacent chemical, pharmaceutical and power plants, anddown along the burbling Yangtze river, where his family collects drinking water. Then one day, he got the call. "The doctor tried everything to make him better, but he didn't get better, and he died," said Xie, 24, gazing up at the paper mill which towers above his home.

"It was definitely the pollution. Yanglingang residents count their home as one of China's "cancer villages" – small communities near polluting factories where cancer rates have soared far above the national average. Air pollution rising at an 'alarming rate' in world's cities. Outdoor air pollution has grown 8% globally in the past five years, with billions of people around the world now exposed to dangerous air, according to new data from more than 3,000 cities compiled by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Air pollution rising at an 'alarming rate' in world's cities

While all regions are affected, fast-growing cities in the Middle East, south-east Asia and the western Pacific are the most impacted with many showing pollution levels at five to 10 times above WHO recommended levels. According to the new WHO database, levels of ultra-fine particles of less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5s) are highest in India, which has 16 of the world’s 30 most polluted cities. China, which has been plagued by air pollution, has improved its air quality since 2011 and now has only five cities in the top 30. Nine other countries, including Pakistan and Iran, have one city each in the worst 30.