Schémas de classification : thésaurus, taxonomie, ontologie… « D. Au cœur de l’architecture de l’information et du Knowledge Management, les techniques de classification sont particulièrement d’actualité alors que les volumes d’information en ligne augmentent et que ce que nous cherchons est de plus en plus noyé parmi ce que nous ne cherchons pas.
La plupart de ces techniques nous viennent de l’ingénierie documentaire. Avec le Web sémantique, l’ingénierie informatique nous apporte d’autres approches telles que les ontologies et les topic maps, souvent associées à des formalismes et outils définis. Choix de méthodo de construction onto de domaine. Classification à facettes. Des classifications aux thésaurus : du bon usage des facettes. Jacques Maniez Volume 36, N° 4-5, paru le 1 juillet 1999, page(s) 249-262 Présentation de l'article L'usage du terme "facette" est bien intégré au vocabulaire de la science de l'information, mais les acceptions du mot sont si variables selon les auteurs que la perception de son contenu en devient problématique.
Jacques Maniez montre ici que ces difficultés remontent au fondateur de la théorie des facettes, Ranganathan, qui a malencontreusement choisi un terme métaphorique du vocabulaire courant déjà chargé de sens, et dont la théorie des facettes est toujours restée ambiguë. Taxonomies 3.0 « Trend Monitor 2.0. Taxonomy specialist Jan Wyllie, author of one of Ark Group’s biggest-selling special reports, is writing an updated report intended for publication before the end of the year.
IK interviewed him about his reasons for bringing out a Third Edition. What’s new since the old report that makes it worth writing a follow-up? The report, which was written four years ago, does include sections on folksonomies and tagging over the new user made Web of blogs and wikis which was at the beginning of what is now called Web 2.0. Now the millions who use the new free media of Web 2.0 just assign any descriptive words which come to mind, and hope to remember them, and that other people whom they would like to see their stuff will happen to use the same words.
Yet we know that taxonomies, especially faceted classification, add considerable meaning and value to the information retrieval experience. Will it be all-new material or simply additional or re-written chapters? The plan is to publish in the autumn. Descripteurs.
Voc. Exemples Applications. Web Sémantique:PagePrincipale. Vocab temps/evenement. TimeML is a robust specification language for events and temporal expressions in natural language.
It is designed to address four problems in event and temporal expression markup: Time stamping of events (identifying an event and anchoring it in time); Ordering events with respect to one another (lexical versus discourse properties of ordering); Reasoning with contextually underspecified temporal expressions (temporal functions such as 'last week' and 'two weeks before'); Reasoning about the persistence of events (how long does an event or the outcome of an event last).
TimeML has been developed in the context of three AQUAINT workshops and projects. The 2002 TERQAS workshop set out to enhance natural language question answering systems to answer temporally-based questions about the events and entities in news articles. The first version of TimeML was defined and the TimeBank corpus was created as an illustration. In addition, TimeML has been discussed and promoted in: Advantages of thesauri representation with the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) compared with other proposed alternatives for the design of a Web-based thesauri management system.
Introduction The concept of thesaurus has evolved from a list of conceptually interrelated words to today's controlled vocabularies, where terms form complex structures through semantic relationships.
This term comes from the Latin and has turn been derived from the Greek "θησαυρός", which means treasury according to the Spanish Royal Academy, in whose dictionary it is also defined as: 'name given by its authors to certain dictionaries, catalogues and anthologies'. The increase in scientific communication and productivity made it essential to develop keyword indexing systems. At that time, Howerton spoke of controlled lists to refer to concepts that were heuristically or intuitively related.
According to Roberts (1984), Mooers was the first to relate thesauri to information retrieval systems; Taube established the foundations of post-coordination, while Luhn dealt, at a basic level, with the creation of thesauri using automatic techniques. Gilchrist defined a thesaurus as: