Units, dose types, concentration, Nuclides
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Der Dosiskonversionsfaktor , manchmal auch Dosis-Umrechnungsfaktor genannt, engl. dose conversion factor (DCF), stellt eine Beziehung her zwischen der gemessenen Zerfallsrate eines radioaktiven Strahlers (Einheit Becquerel ), der in den menschlichen Körper gelangt ist, und der Strahlenbelastung pro Jahr, ausgedrückt als Äquivalentdosis mit der Einheit Sievert (Sv). Der Dosiskonversionsfaktor hängt von physikalischen und physiologischen Parametern ab: Zusammensetzung des Strahlers ( Isotop bzw.
The coulomb (unit symbol: C ) is the SI derived unit of electric charge (symbol: Q or q ). It is defined as the charge transported by a steady current of one ampere in one second :
The equivalent absorbed radiation dose , usually shortened to equivalent dose , or formerly dose equivalent , is a computed average measure of the radiation absorbed by a fixed mass of biological tissue, that attempts to account for the different biological damage potential of different types of ionizing radiation .
The sievert (symbol: Sv) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of equivalent radiation dose , effective dose , and committed dose . Quantities that are measured in sieverts are designed to represent the stochastic biological effects of ionizing radiation . The sievert should not be used to express the unmodified absorbed dose of radiation energy, which is a clear physical quantity measured in grays .
The joule ( pron.: / ˈ dʒ uː l / or sometimes / ˈ dʒ aʊ l / ), symbol J , is a derived unit of energy , work , or amount of heat in the International System of Units . [ 1 ] It is equal to the energy expended (or work done) in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or N·m), or in passing an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818–1889). [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ]
The roentgen equivalent in man (or mammal [ 1 ] :579 ) (abbreviated rem ; symbol rem , or often but incorrectly R ) is an older, CGS , unit of equivalent dose , effective dose , and committed dose . Quantities measured in rem are designed to represent the stochastic biological effects of ionizing radiation , primarily radiation-induced cancer . These quantities are a complex weighted average of absorbed dose , which is a clear physical quantity measured in rads . There is no universally applicable conversion constant from rad to rem. The rem is defined since 1976 as equal to 0.01 sievert , which is the more commonly used SI unit outside of the United States. A number of earlier definitions going back to 1945 were derived from the roentgen unit , which was named after Wilhelm Röntgen , a German scientist who discovered X-rays .
Absorbed dose (also known as total ionizing dose , TID) is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation per unit mass.
The rad is a deprecated unit of absorbed radiation dose , defined as 1 rad = 0.01 Gy = 0.01 J/kg. [ 1 ] It was originally defined in CGS units in 1953 as the dose causing 100 ergs of energy to be absorbed by one gram of matter.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is the SI derived unit of absorbed dose , specific energy (imparted) and of kerma . Such energies are typically associated with ionising radiation such as X-rays or gamma particles or with other nuclear particles .
Alpha decay is one example type of radioactive decay, in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle , and thereby transforms (or 'decays') into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. Many other types of decays are possible.
The measurement of Ionizing Radiation is sometimes expressed as being a rate of counts per unit time registered by a radiation monitoring instrument, of which counts per minute and counts per second are commonly used.
The becquerel (symbol Bq ) (pronounced: 'be-kə-rel) is the SI-derived unit of radioactivity . One Bq is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second . The Bq unit is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s −1 .
The Curie (symbol Ci ) is a non- SI unit of radioactivity , named after Marie and Pierre Curie . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It is defined as 1 Ci = 3.7 × 10 10 decays per second .
Die Aktivität oder Zerfallsrate einer radioaktiven Stoffmenge ist die Anzahl der Kernzerfälle pro Zeiteinheit. Die SI-Einheit der Aktivität ist das Becquerel (Bq). 1 Bq entspricht einem Kernzerfall pro Sekunde.