Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots , [ 1 ] as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
Electron deficiency occurs when a compound has too few valence electrons for the connections between atoms to be described as covalent bonds . Electron deficient bonds are often better described as 3-center-2-electron bonds . Examples of compounds that are electron deficient are the boranes .
A nuclide (from nucleus ) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z , its number of neutrons N , and its nuclear energy state. [ 1 ] The word nuclide was proposed [ 2 ] by Truman P. Kohman [ 3 ] in 1947.
Matter , generally is a substance (often a particle) that has rest mass and (usually) also volume .
The three naturally-occurring isotopes of hydrogen . The fact that each isotope has one proton makes them all variants of hydrogen : the identity of the isotope is given by the number of neutrons. From left to right, the isotopes are protium ( 1 H) with zero neutrons, deuterium ( 2 H) with one neutron, and tritium ( 3 H) with two neutrons. Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element : while all isotopes of a given element share the same number of protons and electrons , each isotope differs from the others in its number of neutrons . The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"). Hence: "the same place," meaning that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table.
The neutron number , symbol N , is the number of neutrons in a nuclide . Atomic number (proton number) plus neutron number equals mass number : Z + N = A . The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess : D = N - Z = A - 2Z . Neutron number is rarely written explicitly in nuclide symbol notation, but appears as a subscript to the right of the element symbol.
An explanation of the superscripts and subscripts seen in atomic number notation. In chemistry and physics , the atomic number (also known as the proton number ) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus. It is conventionally represented by the symbol Z . The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element .
3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane
In physics , particularly electromagnetism , the Lorentz force is the force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields . If a particle of charge q moves with velocity v in the presence of an electric field E and a magnetic field B , then it will experience a force
The neutron is a subatomic hadron particle which has the symbol n or n 0 , no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton . With the exception of hydrogen-1 , nuclei of atoms consist of protons and neutrons, which are therefore collectively referred to as nucleons .
The proton is a subatomic particle with the symbol p or p + and a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge .
The electron (symbol: e − ) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge . [ 8 ] An electron has no known components or substructure. It is generally thought to be an elementary particle . [ 2 ] An electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton . [ 9 ] The intrinsic angular momentum ( spin ) of the electron is a half-integer value in units of ħ , which means that it is a fermion .
The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom .
The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons . The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1 , which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force .
Boltzmann's molecules (1896) shown at a "rest position" in a solid In thermodynamics, entropy is commonly associated with the amount of order, disorder, and/or chaos in a thermodynamic system . This stems from Rudolf Clausius ' 1862 assertion that any thermodynamic processes always "admits to being reduced to the alteration in some way or another of the arrangement of the constituent parts of the working body " and that internal work associated with these alterations is quantified energetically by a measure of "entropy" change, according to the following differential expression: [ 1 ] In the years to follow, Ludwig Boltzmann translated these "alterations" into that of a probabilistic view of order and disorder in gas phase molecular systems. In recent years, in chemistry textbooks there has been a shift away from using the terms "order" and "disorder" to that of the concept of energy dispersion to describe entropy, among other theories.