Chemistry

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Elements

Periodic table. Standard 18-column form of the periodic table.

Periodic table

The colors used in the version of the table shown here signify different categories of elements, as listed below in the Layout section, under the larger table. The rows of the table are called periods; the columns are called groups, with some of these having names such as halogens or noble gases. Since, by definition, a periodic table incorporates recurring trends, any such table can be used to derive relationships between the properties of the elements and predict the properties of new, yet to be discovered or synthesized, elements. As a result, a periodic table—whether in the standard form or some other variant—provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behavior, and such tables are widely used in chemistry and other sciences. Although precursors exist, Dmitri Mendeleev is generally credited with the publication, in 1869, of the first widely recognized periodic table.

Chemical element. The lightest chemical elements, including hydrogen, helium and smaller amounts of lithium, beryllium and boron, are thought to have been produced by various cosmic processes during the Big Bang and cosmic-ray spallation.

Chemical element

Production of heavier elements, from carbon to the very heaviest elements, proceeded by stellar nucleosynthesis, and these were made available for later solar system and planetary formation by planetary nebulae and supernovae, which blast these elements into space.[1] The high abundance of oxygen, silicon, and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. While most elements are generally stable, a small amount of natural transformation of one element to another also occurs in the decay of radioactive elements as well as other natural nuclear processes[clarification needed].

Chemical bond. A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.

Chemical bond

The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" such as covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding. Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. Chemical substance. Steam and liquid water are two different forms of the same chemical substance, water.

Chemical substance

In chemistry, a chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.[1] It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e. without breaking chemical bonds. It can be solid, liquid, gas, or plasma. Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not considered to be matter, and thus they are not "substances" in this regard. Definition[edit] Colors of a single chemical (Nile red) in different solvents, under visible and UV light. Chemical reaction. A thermite reaction using iron(III) oxide.

Chemical reaction

The sparks flying outwards are globules of molten iron trailing smoke in their wake. A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.[1] Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei (no change to the elements present), and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes may both occur.

Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration, and rapid reactions are often described as spontaneous, requiring no input of extra energy other than thermal energy. Chemistry. Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.[1][2] Chemistry is chiefly concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms - for example, the properties of the chemical bonds formed between atoms to create chemical compounds.

Chemistry

As well as this, interactions including atoms and other phenomena - electrons and various forms of energy—are considered, such as photochemical reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, changes in phases of matter, and separation of mixtures. Finally, properties of matter such as alloys or polymers are considered. Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it bridges other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology with each other.[3][4] Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics.[5]

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