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Liquid is one of the the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid , gas , and plasma ), and is the only state with a definite volume but no fixed shape. A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms and molecules, held together by intramolecular bonds. Water is, by far, the most common liquid on Earth. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Some liquids resist compression, while others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid , liquid , and plasma ). A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas or atomic gas like neon ), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen ), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide ). A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air . What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles.
Single crystalline form of solid Insulin . Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid , gas , and plasma ). It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. Unlike a liquid , a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does.
Velocity-distribution data (3 views) for a gas of rubidium atoms, confirming the discovery of a new phase of matter, the Bose–Einstein condensate. Left: just before the appearance of a Bose–Einstein condensate. Center: just after the appearance of the condensate. Right: after further evaporation, leaving a sample of nearly pure condensate.
Video of a Meissner effect in a high temperature superconductor (black pellet) with a NdFeB magnet (metallic) A high-temperature superconductor levitating above a magnet Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature . It was discovered by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8, 1911 in Leiden . Like ferromagnetism and atomic spectral lines , superconductivity is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. It is characterized by the Meissner effect , the complete ejection of magnetic field lines from the interior of the superconductor as it transitions into the superconducting state.
is a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity . While originally this phenomenon was discovered in liquid helium , it has found applications not only in the theory of liquid helium but also in astrophysics, high-energy physics and theories of quantum gravity. The phenomenon is related to the Bose–Einstein condensation but not identical: not all Bose-Einstein condensates can be regarded as superfluids and not all superfluids are Bose–Einstein condensates. [ edit ] Superfluidity of liquid helium