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Flowrate Calculation for a Venturi.


Ward Burner Systems - Power Burners, Raku Burners, and Kilns. Burner Choices. Choices in Heating a Furnace/Glory Hole Rev. 3/27/94, 12/14/94, 7/18/95 ELECTRICITY VS GAS - For a furnace or glory hole for glassblowing, a burner is normally used as it is much usually more economical (when element cost is included) to use gas over electricity.

Burner Choices

Those people using electricity to melt glass report that the size of the furnace must be limited* and the elements must often be replaced each time the furnace is shut down. Since the temperature of melted glass is very near the upper limit* of most electric heating material (except carbon arc which requires such complicated hardware no artist uses it) or silicon oxide rod which requires heavy power) the elements must be heavy and well supported.

Being heavy means that higher power and current must be provided, adding to the expense. HEAT SUPPLIED - Burners supplying 90,000 Btu up to 350,000 Btu are be used. BASIC BURNER OVERVIEW - For the burner to work fuel must be mixed with air. Ceramic fibre linings — Cooking Glass: the site for glassies. Testing Lambda Sensors On and Off the Car. Testing Lambda Sensors On and Off the Car From Andy MacFadyen The following are a series of articles sent to me by Andy MacFadyen. Please note the warnings about using a high impedance meter. Standard analogue and digital multimeters will usually respond too slowly to show the rapid square wave signal (2Hz?) Coming from the sensor. Basic Way to Test a Lambda Sensor on the Car Analogue Multimeters/Voltmeters can damage the sensor and will not give accurate results because they draw too much current the sensor and absorb the voltage that they are attempting to measure.

Important for this test you must leave the sensor connected to the ECU! To ensure the engine is fully warmed through run the engine at fast idle until the cooling fan cuts in. A steady voltage of between 0.4 and 0.5 V is a sign that the ECU is running in open loop mode --- either the engine is not fully warm or it may indicate a bad connection or a faulty water temperature sensor or an ECU fault. Notes: Air Flow and Velocities due to Natural Draft.

A temperature difference between the outside and inside air will create a "natural draft" forcing air to flow through the building.

Air Flow and Velocities due to Natural Draft

The direction of the flow depends on the temperatures. If inside temperature is higher than outside temperature, inside air density is less than outside air density, and inside air will flow up and out of the upper parts of the building. Cold outside air will flow into the lower parts of the building. If outside temperature is higher than inside air temperature - the air flow will be in the opposite direction. Natural Draft Head The natural draft is caused by the difference in outside and inside air density. DpmmH2O = 1000 h (ρo - ρr) / ρh2o (1) where dpmmH2O = head in millimeter water column (mm H2O) ρo = density outside air (kg/m3) ρr = density inside air (kg/m3) ρh2o = density water (in general 1000 kg/m3) h = height between outlet and inlet air (m) Natural Draft Pressure Equation (1) can be modified to SI pressure units like Density and Temperature Note!

BTC. ITC Products : Dempsey's Forge - anvilfire Store. International Technical Ceramics high temperature, high performance, ceramic coatings for metals and refractories.

ITC Products : Dempsey's Forge - anvilfire Store

These unique high temperature energy saving materials are used in the ceramics, foundry, forge aerospace and many other industries. We stock the full line of ITC products in pints and gallons (Half gallons are no longer available). For more details see each product below OR our ITC Ceramic Products Documentation page. Ownership of ITC has changed. Womack Industries, LLC purchased International Technical Ceramics and is now doing business as International Technical Ceramics, LLC. and moved production to Fort Worth Texas.