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Oswald Spengler. Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art.

Oswald Spengler

He is best known for his book The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), published in 1918 and 1922, covering all of world history. He proposed a new theory, according to which the lifespan of civilizations is limited and ultimately they decay. He wrote extensively throughout World War I and the interwar period, and supported German hegemony in Europe. His other writings made little impact outside Germany. In 1920 Spengler produced Prussiandom and Socialism (Preußentum und Sozialismus), which argued for an organic, nationalist version of socialism and authoritarianism.

Biography[edit] On 26 May 1799, Friedrich Wilhelm Grantzow, a tailor's apprentice in Berlin, married a Jewish woman named Bräunchen Moses (whose parents, Abraham and Reile Moses, were both deceased by that time). Impact[edit] Aftermath[edit] Martin Niemöller. James Thurber. James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894 – November 2, 1961) was an American cartoonist, author, journalist, and celebrated wit.

James Thurber

Thurber was best known for his cartoons and short stories, published mainly in The New Yorker magazine and collected in his numerous books. One of the most popular humorists of his time, Thurber celebrated the comic frustrations and eccentricities of ordinary people. Life[edit] Thurber was born in Columbus, Ohio, to Charles L. Thurber and Mary Agnes (name) Fisher Thurber on December 8, 1894. Thurber had two brothers, William and Robert. From 1913 to 1918, Thurber attended The Ohio State University, where he was a member of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. From 1918 to 1920, at the close of World War I, Thurber worked as a code clerk for the Department of State, first in Washington, D.C., and then at the Embassy of the United States, Paris, France.

Move to New York[edit] Marriage and family[edit] Thurber was married twice. Death[edit] Legacy and honors[edit] Career[edit] Ivan Pavlov. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: Ива́н Петро́вич Па́влов, IPA: [ɪˈvan pʲɪˈtrovʲɪt͡ɕ ˈpavləf] ( ); 26 September [O.S. 14 September] 1849 – 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

Ivan Pavlov

From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual brilliance along with an unusual energy which he named "the instinct for research".[1] Inspired by the progressive ideas which D. I. Pisarev, the most eminent of the Russian literary critics of the 1860s and I. M. Early life and schooling[edit] The Pavlov Memorial Museum, Ryazan: Pavlov's former home, built in the early 19th century[5] Ivan Pavlov, the eldest of eleven children,[6] was born in Ryazan (now the Central Federal District) of the Russian Empire. Pavlov attended and graduated from the Ryazan Church School before entering the local theological seminary. Ivan Pavlov Career[edit] Married life and family problems[edit] Ivan Pavlov married Seraphima Vasilievna Karchevskaya on 1 May 1881.

Soong May-ling. Soong May-ling or Soong Mei-ling, also known as Madame Chiang Kai-shek or Madame Chiang (traditional Chinese: 宋美齡; simplified Chinese: 宋美龄; pinyin: Sòng Měilíng; March 5, 1898[1] – October 23, 2003) was a First Lady of the Republic of China (ROC), the wife of Generalissimo and President Chiang Kai-shek.

Soong May-ling

She was a politician, painter and the chairman of Fu Jen Catholic University. The youngest and the last surviving of the three Soong sisters, she played a prominent role in the politics of the Republic of China and was the sister-in-law of Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Republic of China preceding her husband. Childhood and Education[edit] She was born in Hongkou District, Shanghai, China, on March 5, 1898, though some biographies give the year as 1897, since Chinese tradition considers one to be a year old at birth.[3] She was the fourth of six children of Charlie Soong, a wealthy businessman and former Methodist missionary from Hainan, and his wife Ni Kwei-tseng. Madame Chiang[edit] Antonin Artaud. Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (French: [aʁto]; 4 September 1896 – 4 March 1948), was a French playwright, poet, actor and theatre director.

Antonin Artaud

Antonin is a diminutive form of Antoine "little Anthony", and was among a list of names which Artaud used throughout his writing career. Background[edit] Antoine Artaud was born September 4, 1896 in Marseille, France, to Euphrasie Nalpas and Antoine-Roi Artaud.[1] Both his parents were natives of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir), and he was greatly affected by his Greek ancestry.[1] His mother gave birth to nine children, but only Antonin and one sister survived infancy.

When he was four years old, Artaud had a severe case of meningitis, which gave him a nervous, irritable temperament throughout his adolescence. He also suffered from neuralgia, stammering, and severe bouts of clinical depression. Artaud's parents arranged a long series of sanatorium stays for their temperamental son, which were both prolonged and expensive. Walter Lewin. Walter H.

Walter Lewin

G. Lewin, Ph.D. (born January 28, 1936) is a Dutch astrophysicist and professor emeritus of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Born in the Hague Netherlands, professor Lewin achieved his PhD in nuclear physics in 1965 at the Delft University of Technology and came to MIT in 1966. Lewin's major contributions in astrophysics include the discovery of the first slowly rotating neutron star through all-sky balloon surveys, research in X-ray detection in investigations through satellites and observatories worldwide.

Early life and education[edit] Lewin was born Walter Hendrik Gustav Lewin to parents Walter Simon Lewin and Pieternella Johanna van der Tang in 1936 in The Hague, Netherlands. Lewin earned his Ph.D. degree in nuclear physics in 1965 at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Academic career[edit] He joined the X-ray astronomy group at MIT and conducted all-sky balloon surveys with George W. Society memberships[edit] Awards[edit] Books[edit] Michel Foucault. Born in Poitiers, France to an upper-middle-class family, Foucault was educated at the Lycée Henri-IV and then the École Normale Supérieure, where he developed an interest in philosophy and came under the influence of his tutors Jean Hyppolite and Louis Althusser.

Michel Foucault

After several years as a cultural diplomat abroad, he returned to France and published his first major book, The History of Madness. After obtaining work between 1960 and 1966 at the University of Clermont-Ferrand, he produced two more significant publications, The Birth of the Clinic and The Order of Things, which displayed his increasing involvement with structuralism, a theoretical movement in social anthropology from which he later distanced himself. These first three histories were examples of a historiographical technique Foucault was developing which he called "archaeology". Early life[edit] Youth: 1926–1946[edit] "I wasn't always smart, I was actually very stupid in school...

École Normale Supérieure: 1946–1951[edit]

Evil Dudes

Legendary. Leo Strauss. Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German–American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.

Leo Strauss

He was born in Germany to Jewish parents and later emigrated to the United States. He spent most of his career as a professor of political science at the University of Chicago, where he taught several generations of students and published fifteen books.[1] Early life[edit] Leo Strauss was born in the small town of Kirchhain in Hessen-Nassau, a province of the Kingdom of Prussia (part of the German Empire), on September 20, 1899, to Hugo Strauss and Jennie Strauss, née David. According to Allan Bloom's 1974 obituary in Political Theory, Strauss "was raised as an Orthodox Jew," but the family does not appear to have completely embraced Orthodox practice.[3] Strauss himself noted that he came from a "conservative, even orthodox Jewish home," but one which knew little about Judaism except strict adherence to ceremonial laws. Sayyid Qutb. Sayyid Qutb (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ˈsæjjed ˈʔotˤb], Arabic: [ˈsæjjɪd ˈqʊtˤb]; Arabic: سيد قطب‎; also Said, Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, or Sayed; Koteb, Qutub, Kotb, or Kutb) (9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.

Sayyid Qutb

In 1966 he was convicted of plotting the assassination of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and was executed by hanging. Author of 24 books, including novels, literary arts critique and works on education, he is best known in the Muslim world for his work on what he believed to be the social and political role of Islam, particularly in his books Social Justice and Ma'alim fi al-Tariq (Milestones). His magnum opus, Fi Zilal al-Quran (In the shade of the Qur'an), is a 30-volume commentary on the Qur'an.

Life and public career Early childhood Two Years in America On his return to Egypt, Qutb published "The America that I Have Seen. " Secularism. Vadim Zeeland. Vadim Zeland (Rus.

Vadim Zeeland

Вадим Зеланд) is a contemporary Russian mystic and writer.[1] Transurfing[edit] Background[edit] Little is known about Vadim Zeland. He states in his autobiography that he used to be a quantum mechanics physicist and later a computer technologist. The basic thrust of Zeland's methods is similar to other approaches that rely on positive thinking such as The Secret by Rhonda Byrne (Amazon) and The Law of Attraction. Some of Zeland's techniques are very simple and practical, e.g. his methods of combining rational thinking with intuition for making practical decisions. Zeland also advocates reducing the amount of mental self-talk in favour of listening to one's intuition, which has some similarity with the teachings of Eckhart Tolle.

Five books on Zeland teachings have been published in Russia, plus a single volume that combines all five. References[edit] Jump up ^ Vadim Zeland, Reality transferring. External links[edit] Judith Miller (philosopher) Judith Miller (French: [milɛʁ]; born 1941) is a French philosopher. She is the daughter of the radical psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and Sylvia Bataille. Her spouse is the prominent Lacanian Jacques-Alain Miller. As a Maoist philosophy lecturer at Vincennes in Paris, her radicalism was used as a reason for her philosophy department to be decertified.[1] This occurred after she handed out course credit to someone she met on a bus, and subsequently publicly declared in a radio interview that the university is a capitalist institution, and that she would do everything she could to make it run as badly as possible. After this, she was demoted by the French education department to a lycée teacher. Richard David Precht.

Richard David Precht (born December 8, 1964) is a German author of successful popular science books about philosophical issues.[1][2][3] Life[edit] Richard David Precht is a son of a married couple (Hans-Jürgen Precht, 30 April 1933 in Hannover; Mother 1 August 1938 in Neuhof bei Berlin). He grew up in an alternative and unconventional-bourgeois family with five children including two Vietnamese adoptees whom the parents adopted in 1969 and 1972 symbolically against the Vietnam War. His father, a formal industrial designer, dealt with literature and also the setup and care of a larger private library.

His mother was a housewife and very involved in Terre des hommes. In 1997, Precht was Arthur F. As an essayist Precht has written for German newspaper and magazines. Precht today gives many lectures at universities and science congresses. Works[edit] Precht is successful with literary works as well as non-fiction. Dissertation[edit] Fiction books[edit] Philosophical books[edit] Publishing[edit] List of fictional princesses. This is a list of fictional princesses that have appeared in various works of fiction. This list is organized by medium and limited to well-referenced, notable examples of fictional princesses. Literature[edit] This section contains examples of both classic and more modern writing. Theatre[edit] Film[edit] Live Action[edit] Animated[edit] Disney[edit] Other/ Non-Disney[edit] Television[edit] Live Action[edit] Animated and Anime[edit] Comics and Manga[edit] Video Games[edit] Web[edit] External links[edit] References[edit]

Éric Moussambani.