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What form of women’s body shape was preferred in medieval Europe? One point that has repeatedly come up in this site’s criticism is that beauty standards fluctuate greatly, an alleged example being that overweight women were preferred in medieval Europe. Just about everyone points out Peter Paul Rubens’ paintings featuring obese women. What did medieval Europeans prefer in women’s looks?

There are no controlled laboratory studies from medieval Europe to help answer the question. So people look at art. However, when Christianity took control of Europe, artistic creativity and output went down the drain. The birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli (Florence; painted 1482–1486). Botticelli’s Venus isn’t overweight or obese. Clockwise from top left: Adam and Eve in paradise, Venus, and two versions of The Judgment of Paris by Lucas Cranach the Elder (Saxony; lived 1472–1553).

What does Cranach’s artwork tell us about his preferences or those of his times? La maja desnuda (The nude maja) by Francisco de Goya (Spain; painted 1797–1800). References Stunkard, A. Gap In Your Front Teeth? - In India alone there are more than a million people who have a gap between their two front teeth. Though there are tons of people who do not like this gap, there are quite a number of them who are adoring this 'lucky gap'.

If you have a gap between your two front teeth, it is considered to be lucky. But, then again there are some people who spend a lot of money on dental care trying to cover the gap. The gap between your teeth surely looks ugly if the gap is wide enough to pull your tongue through it! Here, Boldsky has mentioned some facts as to why we think you should keep the gap between your two front teeth. Take a look at some of these facts, it is quite interesting and you might change your mind after reading these facts about the gap in your front teeth. Too intelligent It is said that if you have a gap between your two front teeth, you are considered to be very intelligent. Talkative Do you know why you are a jabber mouth? Good with money Healthy eaters Career wise. High, prominent forehead - What does your face reveal about you?

The Canterbury Tales. English 'The Canterbury Tales' by Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1345-1400) was enormously popular in medieval England, with over 80 copies in existence from the 1500s. Its popularity may be due to the fact that the tales were written in Middle English, a language that developed after the Norman invasion, after which those in power would have spoken French. Chaucer was born in London, around 1345, into a well-connected family of wine-merchants.

As a young teenager he was taken into an aristocratic household. By 1367, he had entered royal service under the patronage of the king's son, the powerful John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. For the rest of his life, Chaucer's fortunes were tied to the political intrigues of court life. When Edward III died in 1377, he was succeeded by his young grandson, Richard II. But a turbulent power struggle between John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester would soon lead to a decline in Chaucer's circumstances. What is 'The Canterbury Tales' about? St. Thomas Becket - Archbishop, Saint. Pilgrimage to Canterbury. Soon after the death of Thomas Becket, Pope Alexander canonised him and the murdered priest was elevated to sainthood. Becket's shrine at Canterbury now became the most important place in the country for pilgrims to visit. When Becket was killed, local people apparently managed to obtain pieces of cloth soaked in his blood.

Rumours soon spread that, when touched by this cloth, people were cured of blindness, epilepsy and leprosy. It was not long before the monks at Canterbury Priory were selling small glass bottles of Becket's blood to visitors. The keeper of the shrine would also give the pilgrim a metal badge that had been stamped with the symbol of the shrine. The monks were afraid that Becket's body might be stolen. To prevent this from happening, Becket's marble coffin was placed in the crypt of the cathedral. In 1220, Becket's bones were moved to a new gold-plated and bejewelled shrine behind the high altar. Diagram of Canterbury Cathedral. WHAT IS PILGRIMAGE? « RE:quest. Why would a Christian decide to go on a pilgrimage? Are there any places in the world that you would love to visit? Take a moment to think about why.

Perhaps you chose somewhere that is associated with someone special – for example, the town or country your grandparents were born, or where a hero of yours lives. Perhaps you chose a place you have heard a lot about and would love to see for yourself. When Christians go on pilgrimage they travel somewhere that is special to their faith. It might be to places written about in the Bible, such as where Jesus and the early Christians lived.

Pilgrimage is an important part of spiritual life for many Christians. Geoffrey Chaucer - Author, Poet. English poet Geoffrey Chaucer wrote the unfinished work, The Canterbury Tales. It is considered one of the greatest poetic works in English. Synopsis Poet Geoffrey Chaucer was born circa 1340 in London, England. In 1357 he became a public servant to Countess Elizabeth of Ulster and continued in that capacity with the British court throughout his lifetime. Early Life Poet Geoffrey Chaucer was born circa 1340, most likely at his parents’ house on Thames Street in London, England. Geoffrey Chaucer is believed to have attended the St. In 1357, Chaucer became a public servant to Countess Elizabeth of Ulster, the Duke of Clarence’s wife, for which he was paid a small stipend—enough to pay for his food and clothing.

In 1366, Chaucer married Philippa Roet, the daughter of Sir Payne Roet, and the marriage conveniently helped further Chaucer’s career in the English court. Public Service By 1368, King Edward III had made Chaucer one of his esquires. Major Works Later Life Death. Geoffrey Chaucer Biography - life, death, wife, school, young, book, information, born, house, marriage. Born: c. 1345 London, England Died: October 1400 London, England English poet, author, and courtier Called the father of English poetry, Geoffrey Chaucer is ranked as one of the greatest poets of the late Middle Ages (C. E. 476 c.–1500). He was admired for his philosophy as well as for his poetic talents. His best-known works are The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde.

Early years and marriage The exact date and place of Geoffrey Chaucer's birth are not known. The first historical record of Chaucer reveals that in 1357 he was a page (a young boy in the service of a knight) in the household of the Countess of Ulster, the wife of Prince Lionel. Little is known of Chaucer for the next six years. Geoffrey Chaucer. Philippa was a lady of the queen's chamber. Early poetry and continued diplomatic missions The year 1369 marked a turning point both in the fortunes of England and in the career of young Chaucer.

Troilus and Criseyde The Canterbury Tales Life after Canterbury Tales. An illustrated history of trepanation | Mo Costandi. Trepanation, or trephination (both derived from the Greek word trypanon, meaning “to bore”) is perhaps the oldest form of neurosurgery. The procedure, which is called a craniotomy in medical terminology, involves the removal of a piece of bone from the skull, and it has been performed since prehistoric times. The oldest trepanned skull, found at a neolithic burial site of Ensisheim in France, is more than 7,000 years old, and trepanation was practised by the Ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Indians, Romans, Greeks and the early Mesoamerican civilizations. The procedure is still performed today, for both medical and non-medical reasons The trepanned skulls found at prehistoric European sites contained round holes, which varied in size from just a few centimetres in diameter to nearly half of the skull. They are most commonly found in the parietal bone, and also in the occipital and frontal bones, but rarely in the temporal bone.

An ancient Greek trepanning instrument Mechanical cogwheel trepan. The Hole Story on Trepanation • Damn Interesting. Hippocrates endorsed its use and it’s the world’s second oldest surgical procedure following circumcision. It’s called trepanation and it literally means drilling a hole in your head. And if you think it’s a bygone practice, think again. The practice of making a hole in the skull has been around since the Stone Age — archaeologists have found trepanned skulls dating back to 3000 B.C. Hippocrates, in his classic medical text “On Injuries of the Head,” endorsed trepanation for the treatment of head wounds. During the middle ages it was thought the procedure was able to liberate demons from the heads of the possessed and, later on, “enlightened” Europeans did it to cure maladies ranging from meningitis to epilepsy.

An instrument called a trepan is used to make the hole. That’s right, today in the 21st Century. Currently there are doctors in the world who perform trepanation and will perform one on anyone 18 years or older who consents. In 1965, after years of experimentation, Dr. 10 Bizarre Medieval Medical Practices. Creepy Medicine is one of the cornerstones of modern civilization—so much so that we take it for granted.

It wasn’t always the case that you could just waltz into a doctor’s office to have them cure what ailed you. In medieval times, for example, things were a lot more dangerous, and a lot stranger. 10 Boar Bile Enemas Enemas in medieval times were performed by devices called clysters. Even kings were high up on the clyster. 9 Urine Was Used As An Antiseptic Though it may not have been common, there is evidence to suggest that urine was occasionally used as an antiseptic in the Medieval Era. This isn’t quite as insane as it seems: urine is sterile when it leaves the body and may have been a healthier alternative than most water—which came with no such guarantee of cleanliness. 8 Eye Surgery (With A Needle) During the Middle Ages, cataract surgery was performed with a thick needle. Of course, eye surgery changed rapidly once Islamic medicine began to influence European practices. 4 Trepanning. Medieval Witchcraft. Facts and interesting information about Medieval Life,specifically, Medieval Witchcraft Medieval Witchcraft - White Witches, Wise Women and Cunning FolkDuring the early and middle Medieval era, up to the Renaissance period, the wisdom of the 'Wise women' or 'Cunning Folk' - the White Witches - were seen as helpful, if not invaluable, members of their communities.

Their knowledge of the healing properties of various plants and herbs were often passed down through the generations. Their role was to provide help for people in need. Medieval Witchcraft - Black WitchesThe White witches were clearly distinguished from the 'Black' witches. The 'Black' witches were seen as those who practised the secret arts of Medieval witchcraft in order to do physical or practical harm to others.

Medieval Witchcraft - the Hammer of WitchesWhat led to the hysteria surrounding Medieval witchcraft? Medieval Witchcraft - Reasons for the Persecution of WitchesDuring the Medieval era men were all-powerful. Tony Robinson on the top five superstitions that gripped medieval Britain. Ancient Britons didn’t despatch people willy-nilly, but in times of crisis – if a whole community was rocked by plague, say – then they might decide to sacrifice somebody as a way of bartering with the gods. In some cases, a wicker pyre in the shape of a man would be stuffed with animals and even human offerings. We can trace this practice back to Celtic times.

The Celts saw the world in which they lived as crammed full of gods. To appease them, they would sacrifice something important: tools, jewellery, a sword (which would be as valuable as a car in today’s terms), slaves or, ultimately, members of the community. This ritual only ended when new religions, like Mithraism and Christianity, took hold. Malleus Maleficarum, a handbook explaining how to identify, capture and kill a witch, was first published in Germany in 1487 and then circulated around Europe, stoking hysteria about witchcraft. Changelings Possession Vampires. The Middle Ages: Feudal Life.