Quantum Mechanics: Wikipedia articles. CERN & the LHC. The Higgs boson. Nothingness. How Quantum Physics affects our Ideas of Reality. Physicists Discover New Massless Particle; Could Revolutionize Electronics & Quantum Computing. Hasan pictured with a scanning tunneling spectromicroscope used to find the Weyl fermion. Danielle Alio/Princeton University. Physics may have just taken a new leap forward, as three independent groups of physicists have found strong evidence for massless particles called “Weyl fermions,” which exist as quasiparticles – collective excitations of electrons.
Ultimately, this discovery is over 80 years in the making, dating back to Paul Dirac. In 1928, Dirac came up with an equation that described the spin of fermions (fermions are the building blocks that make up all matter). Within his equation, he discovered that, in relation to particles that have charge and mass, there should be a another particle and antiparticle—what we know as the electron and (its antiparticle) the positron. Yet, there are more than one ways to skin a cat. Other solutions to this equation hinted at more exotic kinds of particles.
But now, we have evidence that Weyl fermions actually exist. Unlocking the Find. After 85-year search, massless particle with promise for next-generation electronics found -- ScienceDaily. An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered Weyl fermions, an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. Proposed by the mathematician and physicist Hermann Weyl in 1929, Weyl fermions have been long sought by scientists because they have been regarded as possible building blocks of other subatomic particles, and are even more basic than the ubiquitous, negative-charge carrying electron (when electrons are moving inside a crystal).
New Discovery in Particle Physics Raises Hope for a "Theory of Everything" The standard model of particle physics, which describes every particle we know of and how they interact, was given much credence when the Higgs boson was discovered in 2012. Now, measurements of a rare particle-physics decay at the Large Hadron Collider offer further support for the model – but also hints at ways to find out what lies beyond it. The standard model is cherished by physicists because it can explain most of the fundamental phenomena in nature by referencing just a handful of elementary particles. The elementary particles that according to the standard model makes up matter.
By HolgerFiedler nach Benutzer:Murphee via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA These particles include quarks (one of the components of an atom) and electron-like particles called leptons – along with their so-called antiparticles which are identical but have opposite charge. The model also includes the particles that carry forces between them (photons, gluons, W and Z bosons) and the Higgs. Carver Mead's Spectator Interview. From American Spectator, Sep/Oct2001, Vol. 34 Issue 7, p68 Carver Mead The Spectator Interview Once upon a time, Nobel Laureate leader of the last great generation of physicists, threw down the gauntlet to anyone rash enough to doubt the fundamental weirdness, the quark-boson-muon-strewn amusement park landscape of late 20th-century quantum physics.
Carver Mead never has. As Gordon and Betty Moore Professor of Engineering and Applied Science at Caltech, Mead was Feynman's student, colleague and collaborator, as well as Silicon Valley's physicist in residence and leading intellectual. Perhaps more than any other man, Mead has spent his professional life working on intimate terms with matter at the atomic and subatomic levels. While pursuing these researches, Mead responded to a query from Intel-founder Gordon Moore about the possible size of microelectronic devices.
Among whom was Albert Einstein. Forget the Higgs, neutrinos may be the key to breaking the Standard Model. Some physicists are surprised that two relatively recent discoveries in their field have captured so much widespread attention: cosmic inflation, the ballooning expansion of the baby universe, and the Higgs boson, which endows other particles with mass. These are heady and interesting concepts, but, in one sense, what's new about them is downright boring. These discoveries suggest that so far, our prevailing theories governing large and small—the Big Bang and the Standard Model of subatomic particles and forces—are accurate, good to go. But both cosmic inflation and the Higgs boson fall short of unifying these phenomena and explaining the deepest cosmic questions.
“The Standard Model, as it stands, has no good explanation for why the Universe has anything in it at all,” says Mark Messier, physics professor at Indiana University and spokesman for an under-construction particle detector. What are some of the things that they break? “They are sort of kissing the electrons and moving on. Scientists stop light completely for a record-breaking MINUTE by trapping it inside a crystal. By Abigail Frymann Published: 15:39 GMT, 27 July 2013 | Updated: 15:39 GMT, 27 July 2013 Scientists in Germany have succeeded in stopping light - the fastest thing in the universe - for a whole minute, smashing earlier records. Researchers at Darmstadt Technical University achieved the remarkable feat by trapping it in a crystal.
In a paper published this month in the journal Physical Review Letters, the scientists explained how they stopped the light using a technique called electromagnetically induced transparency. Crystal clear: scientists found they could trap light inside a crystal for up to sixty seconds At full pelt, light would normally travel about 11 million miles in one minute – equivalent to more than 20 round trips to the moon. 'One minute is extremely, extremely long,' Thomas Krauss, Professor of optoelectronics at the University of St Andrews, UK, commented to the New Scientist.
Then they directed a second light source at the now-transparent crystal. A Mass-less Minute. Photons, the mysterious carriers of the electromagnetic force – there’s more to them than reaches the eye. I’m going on a journey to the sub-atomic, to the quantum world, where things are much weirder than life here on Earth… Image credit: NASA Whats in a name? I’ll say that a photon is a stable, gauge boson with no charge that is responsible for the electromagnetic force, and all light we observe in the universe.
Much like other quantum &particles, photons can also be thought of in wave like forms (I’ll just think of them as particles for now though). In short, photons are created when leptons (massive particles like the electron) have access energy to spit out. Image credit: Howstuffworks 2001 As you may know, photons travel at the speed of light (299,792,458 m/s in a vacuum). Simply put, as a photon, you don’t have mass, which means you can only travel at the speed of light. When the rest mass of a particle (photon) is zero, the equation simplifies to , relating a photon’s energy.
The reins of Casimir: Engineered nanostructures could offer way to control quantum effect. You might think that a pair of parallel plates hanging motionless in a vacuum just a fraction of a micrometer away from each other would be like strangers passing in the night—so close but destined never to meet. Thanks to quantum mechanics, you would be wrong. Scientists working to engineer nanoscale machines know this only too well as they have to grapple with quantum forces and all the weirdness that comes with them.
These quantum forces, most notably the Casimir effect, can play havoc if you need to keep closely spaced surfaces from coming together. Controlling these effects may also be necessary for making small mechanical parts that never stick to each other, for building certain types of quantum computers, and for studying gravity at the microscale. But as often happens with quantum phenomena, the work raises new questions even as it answers others. One of the insights of quantum mechanics is that no space, not even outer space, is ever truly empty. More information: F. Recent study reduces Casimir force to lowest recorded level. (Phys.org) —A research team that includes a physics professor at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has recorded a drastically reduced measurement of the Casimir effect, a fundamental quantum phenomenon experienced between two neutral bodies that exist in a vacuum.
For more than 60 years, scientists have studied the peculiar electromagnetic interaction between two neutral objects. The Casimir effect, a long-standing point of study in quantum physics, refers to this unavoidable physical force that exists between the objects, even when those objects are placed in an environment void of any external forces. This recent study, published online on Sept. 27 in the Nature Communications, breaks new ground in the standard measurements of the Casimir effect known to scientists. The experiment used nanostructured (micro-ridged) metallic plates to suppress the force to a much lower rate than ever recorded previously, said Ricardo Decca, Ph.D., professor of physics at IUPUI. Uncertainty at a grand scale | Atom & Cosmos. Researchers produce the first experimental pulse-generation of a single electron—a leviton.
(Phys.org) —A team of researchers in France has produced the first experimental pulse-generation of a single electron—they've named it a leviton, in honor of physicist Leonid Levitov and its resemblance to a soliton. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they caused the leviton to come about and how it might be used in future applications. Seventeen years ago, Levitov and colleagues suggested that if a voltage was applied to a nanocircuit and varied over time according to the mathematical expression of a Lorentzian distribution, it should be possible to excite a single electron peak in a sea of electrons.
In this new effort, the researchers in France have proved the theory to be true and in the process have opened the door to a whole new subfield of physics involving the use of quantum excitations. Explore further: Light on twenty-year-old electron mystery. What are quantum computers good for? Security intelligence for a faster world The problem with trying to explain quantum computing to the public is that you end up either simplifying the story so far as to make it wrong, or running down so many metaphorical rabbit-burrows that you end up wrong. So The Register is going to try and invert the usual approach, and try to describe quantum computing at a more materialistic level: how do you build one, and when it’s built, how do you use it? Hopefully, a concrete framework will make it easier to understand quantum computing along the way. And we promise not to reiterate the story of Schroedinger ‘s cat. Not even once. The basic design Actually, a quantum computer is very easy to design.
How to build a quantum computer. The classical computer is something we're all familiar with. The quantum computer is where the qubits live – those difficult creatures that, if we can control them properly, actually perform the quantum computation. Next: The compiler. 'One real mystery of quantum mechanics': Physicists devise new experiment.
What is light made of: waves or particles? This basic question has fascinated physicists since the early days of science. Quantum mechanics predicts that photons, particles of light, are both particles and waves simultaneously. Reporting in Science, physicists from the University of Bristol give a new demonstration of this wave-particle duality of photons, dubbed the 'one real mystery of quantum mechanics' by Nobel Prize laureate Richard Feynman. The history of science is marked by an intense debate between the particle and wave theories of light. Despite its success, quantum mechanics presents a tremendous challenge to our everyday intuition. Surprisingly, when a photon is observed, it behaves either as a particle or as a wave. In a paper published today in Science, physicists from the University of Bristol give a new twist on these ideas.
A promising perspective for solving quantum mechanics' one real mystery. Researchers use teleportation to beam a single photon 97km. Team send a single proton 97km in China, while a second team in the Canary Islands claims to have reached 143kmBreakthrough could lead to ultra fast communication systems By Mark Prigg Published: 17:43 GMT, 10 August 2012 | Updated: 17:56 GMT, 10 August 2012 Two teams of researchers have extended the reach of quantum teleportation to unprecedented lengths. The groundbreaking research could be a step towards creating quantum computers and other technology operating at speeds far in excess of current limits.
And while teleporting humans may still be a long way off, researchers believe the latest work is a big step forward. Quantum researchers have managed to send a single proton 97km across a lake in China. The team was able to teleport a qubit (a standard unit of data in quantum computing) 97 kilometers across a lake using a small set of photons without fiberoptic cables or other intermediaries.
They used a complex laser targetting device for the experiment. What next after the Higgs? Scientists use 1km cube buried 8000ft under South Pole to track down ANOTHER mystery particle. World's biggest telescope to hunt for mysterious 'neutrinos'Particles could help explain origin of universeMega-detector built 8,000ft under ice near South PoleMachine took 10 years to build By Rob Waugh Published: 11:25 GMT, 10 July 2012 | Updated: 12:49 GMT, 10 July 2012 Scientists are using the world's biggest telescope, buried deep under the South Pole, to try to unravel the mysteries of tiny particles known as neutrinos The discovery could shed light on how the universe was made.
The mega-detector, called IceCube, took 10 years to build 8,000ft below the Antarctic ice. At one cubic km, it is bigger than the Empire State building, the Chicago Sears Tower - now known as Willis Tower - and Shanghai's World Financial Center combined. The final Digital Optical Module (DOM) descends down a bore hole in the ice as it is deployed in the IceCube array, the world's largest neutrino observatory, built under the Antarctic tundra near the US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station.
Scientists photograph shadow of a single atom for the first time. Could allow for medical scans without harmful X-raysSmallest possible object that can be photographed with visible lightShadow photograph took five years By Rob Waugh Published: 10:04 GMT, 5 July 2012 | Updated: 10:12 GMT, 5 July 2012 A new ultra-high-resolution microscope has photographed the shadow of a single atom for the first time - an achievement which took five years. 'We wanted to investigate how few atoms are required to cast a shadow and we proved it takes just one,' say researchers at Griffin University Australia.
Professor Dave Kielpinski, of Griffith University’s Centre for Quantum Dynamics, said: ‘We have reached the extreme limit of microscopy; you can not see anything smaller than an atom using visible light. The key to the breakthrough at Griffith University in Australia is a super high-resolution microscope, which makes the shadow dark enough to see. It will remain the smallest shadow ever photographed, the Griffith University researchers warn. Scientist unlocks the quantum secrets of the moon's bizarre soil, which hangs suspended above the surface when touched.
The matter that's not not not there | Jon Butterworth | Life & Physics | Science. Quantum interference of large organic molecules : Nature Communications. #17: Quantum Weirdness Enters the Larger World | Subatomic Particles. Quantum World.