Standard Model. The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known. It was developed throughout the latter half of the 20th century, as a collaborative effort of scientists around the world. The current formulation was finalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. Since then, discoveries of the top quark (1995), the tau neutrino (2000), and more recently the Higgs boson (2013), have given further credence to the Standard Model. Because of its success in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, the Standard Model is sometimes regarded as a "theory of almost everything".
Historical background The Higgs mechanism is believed to give rise to the masses of all the elementary particles in the Standard Model. Overview Particle content Fermions Gauge bosons Higgs boson Main article: Higgs boson E.S. Elementary Particles Diagram. Quantum mechanics. Wavefunctions of the electron in a hydrogen atom at different energy levels. Quantum mechanics cannot predict the exact location of a particle in space, only the probability of finding it at different locations. The brighter areas represent a higher probability of finding the electron. Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles. Quantum mechanics gradually arose from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, and from the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which explained the photoelectric effect.
History In 1838, Michael Faraday discovered cathode rays. Where h is Planck's constant. Atom. The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. Likewise, a group of atoms can remain bound to each other by chemical bonds based on the same force, forming a molecule. An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral, otherwise it is positively or negatively charged and is known as an ion.
An atom is classified according to the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus: the number of protons determines the chemical element, and the number of neutrons determines the isotope of the element. Etymology History of atomic theory Atomism First evidence-based theory The structure of atoms The physicist J. Structure. Subatomic particle. In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles smaller than atoms. (although some subatomic particles have mass greater than some atoms). There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles, which according to current theories are not made of other particles; and composite particles. Particle physics and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact. In particle physics, the concept of a particle is one of several concepts inherited from classical physics.
But it also reflects the modern understanding that at the quantum scale matter and energy behave very differently from what much of everyday experience would lead us to expect. Interactions of particles in the framework of quantum field theory are understood as creation and annihilation of quanta of corresponding fundamental interactions. Classification By statistics By composition The elementary particles of the Standard Model include: By mass History
List of particles. This is a list of the different types of particles found or believed to exist in the whole of the universe. For individual lists of the different particles, see the individual pages given below. Elementary particles Fermions Fermions are one of the two fundamental classes of particles, the other being bosons. Fermion particles are described by Fermi–Dirac statistics and have quantum numbers described by the Pauli exclusion principle.
They include the quarks and leptons, as well as any composite particles consisting of an odd number of these, such as all baryons and many atoms and nuclei. Fermions have half-integer spin; for all known elementary fermions this is 1⁄2. Quarks Leptons Bosons Bosons are one of the two fundamental classes of particles, the other being fermions. The fundamental forces of nature are mediated by gauge bosons, and mass is believed to be created by the Higgs Field. Hypothetical particles Composite particles Hadrons Atomic nucleus. A model of the atomic nucleus showing it as a compact bundle of the two types of nucleons: protons (red) and neutrons (blue). In this diagram, protons and neutrons look like little balls stuck together, but an actual nucleus (as understood by modern nuclear physics) cannot be explained like this, but only by using quantum mechanics. In a nucleus which occupies a certain energy level (for example, the ground state), each nucleon has multiple locations at once.
The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. It was discovered in 1911 as a result of Ernest Rutherford's interpretation of the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment performed by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden under Rutherford's direction. The proton–neutron model of nucleus was proposed by Dmitry Ivanenko in 1932. Almost all of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus, with a very small contribution from the electron cloud. Introduction History Forces Proton. Electron.
History In the early 1700s, Francis Hauksbee and French chemist Charles François de Fay independently discovered what they believed were two kinds of frictional electricity—one generated from rubbing glass, the other from rubbing resin. From this, Du Fay theorized that electricity consists of two electrical fluids, vitreous and resinous, that are separated by friction, and that neutralize each other when combined. A decade later Benjamin Franklin proposed that electricity was not from different types of electrical fluid, but the same electrical fluid under different pressures. He gave them the modern charge nomenclature of positive and negative respectively. Franklin thought of the charge carrier as being positive, but he did not correctly identify which situation was a surplus of the charge carrier, and which situation was a deficit. Discovery A beam of electrons deflected in a circle by a magnetic field Robert Millikan Atomic theory
Neutron. The neutron is a subatomic hadron particle that has the symbol n or n0. Neutrons have no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. With the exception of hydrogen-1, the nucleus of every atom consists of at least one or more of both protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are collectively referred to as "nucleons". Since interacting protons have a mutual electromagnetic repulsion that is stronger than their attractive nuclear interaction, neutrons are often a necessary constituent within the atomic nucleus that allows a collection of protons to stay atomically bound (see diproton & neutron-proton ratio). Neutrons bind with protons and one another in the nucleus via the nuclear force, effectively stabilizing it.
The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is referred to as its neutron number, which reveals the specific isotope of that atom. The neutron has been key to the production of nuclear power. Discovery Intrinsic properties Fermion. Antisymmetric wavefunction for a (fermionic) 2-particle state in an infinite square well potential. In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics. These particles obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Fermions include all quarks and leptons, as well as all composite particles made of an odd number of these, such as all baryons and many atoms and nuclei.
Fermions differ from bosons, which obey Bose–Einstein statistics. In addition to the spin characteristic, fermions have another specific property: they possess conserved baryon or lepton quantum numbers. Therefore, what is usually referred to as the spin statistics relation is in fact a spin statistics-quantum number relation. As a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle, only one fermion can occupy a particular quantum state at any given time. Composite fermions, such as protons and neutrons, are the key building blocks of everyday matter. Elementary fermions Composite fermions Notes Lepton. A lepton is an elementary, spin-1⁄2 particle that does not undergo strong interactions, but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle. The best known of all leptons is the electron, which governs nearly all of chemistry as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties.
Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. The first charged lepton, the electron, was theorized in the mid-19th century by several scientists and was discovered in 1897 by J.
J. Thomson. The next lepton to be observed was the muon, discovered by Carl D. Leptons are an important part of the Standard Model. Electrons are one of the components of atoms, alongside protons and neutrons. Quark. A quark (/ˈkwɔrk/ or /ˈkwɑrk/) is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, such as baryons (of which protons and neutrons are examples), and mesons. For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves. The quark model was independently proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964. Quarks were introduced as parts of an ordering scheme for hadrons, and there was little evidence for their physical existence until deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968. Accelerator experiments have provided evidence for all six flavors. Classification Strange quark. The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.
Strange quarks are found in subatomic particles called hadrons. Example of hadrons containing strange quarks include kaons (K), strange D mesons (D s), Sigma baryons (Σ), and other strange particles. History In the beginnings of particle physics (first half of the 20th century), hadrons such as protons, neutron and pions were thought to be elementary particles. However, new hadrons were discovered, the 'particle zoo' grew from a few particles in the early 1930s and 1940s to several dozens of them in the 1950s.
However some particles were much longer lived than others; most particles decayed through the strong interaction and had lifetimes of around 10−23 seconds. But when they decayed through the weak interactions, they had lifetimes of around 10−10 seconds to decay. See also References Further reading R. Strangeness. In particle physics, strangeness S is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic reactions, which occur in a short period of time. The strangeness of a particle is defined as: where ns represents the number of strange quarks (s) and ns represents the number of strange antiquarks (s). Strangeness conservation In our modern understanding, strangeness is conserved during the strong and the electromagnetic interactions, but not during the weak interactions.
See also References D.J. Further reading Lessons in Particle Physics Luis Anchordoqui and Francis Halzen, University of Wisconsin, 18th Dec. 2009. Hadron. In particle physics, a hadron i/ˈhædrɒn/ (Greek: ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force (in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force). Of the hadrons, protons are stable, and neutrons bound within atomic nuclei are stable, whereas other hadrons are unstable under ordinary conditions; free neutrons decay with a half life of about 880 seconds. Experimentally, hadron physics is studied by colliding protons or nuclei of heavy elements such as lead, and detecting the debris in the produced particle showers.
Etymology The term "hadron" was introduced by Lev B. Okun in a plenary talk at the 1962 International Conference on High Energy Physics. In this talk he said: Not withstanding the fact that this report deals with weak interactions, we shall frequently have to speak of strongly interacting particles. Properties All types of hadrons have zero total color charge. Baryons Baryon. A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (as distinct from mesons, which comprise one quark and one antiquark). Baryons and mesons belong to the hadron family, which are the quark-based particles. The name "baryon" comes from the Greek word for "heavy" (βαρύς, barys), because, at the time of their naming, most known elementary particles had lower masses than the baryons.
As quark-based particles, baryons participate in the strong interaction, whereas leptons, which are not quark-based, do not. The most familiar baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe. Electrons (the other major component of the atom) are leptons. Each baryon has a corresponding antiparticle (antibaryon) where quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks. Background Baryons, along with mesons, are hadrons, meaning they are particles composed of quarks. Baryonic matter Baryogenesis Properties Meson. Sigma baryon. D meson. Charm quark. Kaon. Photon. Gluon. Higgs boson. Graviton.